Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Golfer’s elbow

November 27th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on Golfer’s elbow)

Golfer’s elbow is a condition which instigates soreness or pain which affects the tendons found in the forearm is connected to the bony lump on the interior of the elbow. The pain can spread to the forearm up to the wrist. Golfer’s elbow is somewhat similar to the tennis elbow which manifests on the exterior part of the affected elbow. People playing tennis who utilize the wrist repeatedly or clamp their fingers are likely to develop this condition.


  • Pain and tenderness felt on the inner side of the elbow that can spread on the inner side of the forearm and becomes worse during movement.
  • The elbow becomes stiff and there is pain when making a fist.
    Golfer's elbow

    Pain and tenderness felt on the inner side of the elbow that can spread on the inner side of the forearm and becomes worse during movement.

  • Weakness of the hands and wrist
  • Numbness and tingling sensations that spread out in one or more fingers and usually it is the ring and the little fingers.
  • Pain becomes worse when lifting weights, swinging a golf club, a pitch ball, picking something with the palm down, shaking hands, turning a doorknob and flexing the wrist.

Seek medical help immediately if the elbow is inflamed or warm, there is fever, an evident deformity of the elbow, incapable of bending the elbow and if a fracture is suspected.


  • Swinging or gripping of clubs that is done incorrectly or too much force can strain on the muscle and tendons.
  • Using a racket that is too small or heavy and performing excessive top spin can stress out the elbow.
  • Improper pitching procedure in playing softball or baseball and improper techniques in playing football. In addition, javelin throwing and archery can cause the development of golfer’s elbow.
  • Improper techniques in performing weight lifting such as curling the wrist when performing biceps exercises.
  • Performing activities that require repeated bending and straightening of elbows such as raking, hammering, painting and chopping woods can cause golfer’s elbow.


  • Apply an ice pack or cold compress on the affected area at least 10-15 minutes every hour when the pain is very severe. After a few hours, reduce the application to 3-4 times every day.
  • Take plenty of rest especially the affected area in order to help in the healing.
  • Avoid performing activities that requires the use of the wrist in order to prevent the condition from getting worse.
  • After three days, apply a warm compress since this helps in stimulating the flow of blood. Use a heat retainer made of neoprene-type support for the elbow to help in retaining the heat of the body and also helps in supporting the muscles of the elbow by preventing straining.
  • Using a tennis elbow brace helps in preventing strain on the tendon. It is a simple strap which is wrapped around the forearm


  • Walk or jog for a few minutes and perform some gentle stretches in order to warm up the muscles before starting a game.
  • Avoid overusing the elbow at the first sign of an elbow pain and take a rest.
  • Use the right equipment for the sports that is being played.
  • Squeeze a tennis ball or use light weights in order to help the muscles absorb the energy of physical stress.


November 27th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Hammertoe)

Hammertoe is a painful deformity of the toes where it bends unusually and becomes claw-like in appearance. This deformity is due to the tendons of the toes that contracts abnormally and forces the toe to bend downward while the middle joint of the toe protrudes upward. Any toe can be affected by this condition but it commonly affects the second toe which is in a claw-like position and there is difficulty in straightening the toe. When wearing shoes, the toe is rubbed and walking becomes painful if a callus occurs in the sole of the foot or a corn develops on top of the toe.

There are two types of hammer toes. The flexible hammer toe where the toe can still be moved from the joint and rigid hammer toe in which the tendons found in the toe becomes stiff and the toe cannot be moved which requires medical help.


  • Pain at the top of the bent toe when wearing shoes
  • The joint of the toe is swollen along with redness or burning sensation of the area
  • Development of corns on top of the joint of the toe

    The joint of the toe is swollen along with redness or burning sensation of the area

  • There is pain when trying to move the affected joint of the toe
  • Pain can be felt on the ball of the foot under the bent toe.
  • If the area becomes severe, an open sore can develop


  • People with flat foot and high-arched feet are susceptible to develop the condition.
  • People with arthritis have the tendency to develop hammertoe
  • Wearing ill-fitting shoes such as shoes that are too tight, too short or too pointy can push the toes out of balance. Pointy and high-heeled shoes can cause severe pressure on the toes and women are more susceptible to this condition than men.
  • Diabetes mellitus can cause damage to the feet and can lead to the development of this deformity.

If the toe becomes painful and there is difficulty walking, seek medical help immediately.


  • For mild hammer toe, use corn pads or felt pads, toe caps which are small padded sleeves that are fitted around the tip of the toe to lessen hammer toe pain.
  • Wear wide shoes with elastic soles to avoid pointed shoes
  • Perform exercises by using the hands such as moving and stretching the toes gently and picking soft and small objects like marbles or towels in order to help make the joints of the toe flexible. Another way is putting a towel flat under the feet and by using the toes, crumple the towel to stretch and strengthen the muscles.
  • If the affected area becomes painful, apply an ice pack at least several times every day to lessen the swelling and soreness of the affected area.
  • Take the prescribed anti-inflammatory medications such as ibuprofen or naproxen to lessen the inflammation and pain.

Irritable bowel syndrome

November 27th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Irritable bowel syndrome)
Pinworm infection

Irritable bowel syndrome is a long-term disorder of the gastrointestinal tract in which the large intestine or the colon as well as the small intestines are involved. This disturbance can lead to cramping, bloating, abdominal pain, sensation of gas and changes in the bowel habits such as diarrhea and constipation.


  • A bloating feeling
  • Abdominal cramping or pain
  • Gas
  • Presence of mucus in the stool
  • Diarrhea or constipation, sometimes alternating attacks of diarrhea and constipation
  • In some people, the symptoms become worse and heal completely.
    Irritable bowel syndrome

    Abdominal cramping or pain

Symptoms such as abdominal pain that becomes severe and happen at night, rectal bleeding and losing weight require immediate medical care.


  • Eating chocolates, fats, spices, fruits, cabbage, broccoli, milk, carbonated drinks and alcohol can cause irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome becomes worse during periods of stress such as first time on a job.
  • Hormonal changes in women during their menstrual periods
  • Illnesses such as infectious diarrhea or gastroenteritis


  • The individual should perform meditation, yoga or a simple breathing exercise by sitting or lying, and then focus attention to the air going in and out of the body. Once anxiety-producing thoughts interrupts, just focus completely on the breathing. Perform these exercises every day.
  • Minimize eating of fried foods, margarine, dairy food, meats and other fatty foods to prevent the colon from contracting violently which can cause abdominal pain and diarrhea.
  • Avoid chewing gum or candies that contain artificial sweeteners.
  • Stop smoking since nicotine will only make the condition worse.
  • Drink at least six to eight glasses of water every day in order to help the fibers move in a smooth manner through the system.
  • Eat smaller meals frequently rather than a couple of large meals every day, eating large amounts of food at once can cause over stimulating the digestive system. Avoid eating too fast in order to avoid swallowing too much air which results to intestinal gas.
  • Eat plenty of yogurts that contain active bacteria such as acidophilus or take supplements of acidophilus to be used on an empty stomach.
  • Encourage the individual to drink ginger tea. All you have to do is grate ½ teaspoon of ginger into a cup, pour in hot water and let it steep for at least 10 minutes, strain the tea and drink it. Drink at least 4- 6 cups of ginger tea every day to help relaxing all digestive problems including irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Perform non-competitive exercises like walking for at least 30 minutes, in order to help relieve stress and help release natural painkilling endorphins and makes the body and the digestive system work smoothly. Endorphins are released as reactions to certain stimuli especially fear, stress and pain.