Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Trench mouth

March 25th, 2016 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Trench mouth)

Trench mouth is a painful bacterial infection that causes swelling or inflammation along with ulcer formation in the gums. Trench mouth is a severe form of gingivitis that causes infection, pain, ulcerations and bleeding gums. It usually affects people with poor nutrition and poor living conditions.

Trench mouth is also known as necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and its name was derived from soldiers who were stuck in the trenches during World War I without any means of proper dental care. Luckily, this condition is not contagious.


  • Crater-like ulcers that develops between the teeth and gums
  • Bad breath
  • Fever and fatigue or malaise
  • Gums appear reddened and swollen
    Trench mouth

    Maintain good oral hygiene regularly, brush and floss the teeth thoroughly at least 2 times every day especially after each meal and at bedtime to prevent development of trench mouth.

  • Foul taste in the mouth
  • Pain in the gums
  • Grayish film on the gums
  • Severe bleeding as a reaction to any pressure or irritation
  • Pain when eating or swallowing
  • Swollen lymph nodes around the neck, head and jaw


  • The mouth normally contains different bacteria and the condition develops when the normal mouth bacteria are abundant. The gums become infected and develop painful ulcers.
  • Trench mouth can be caused by emotional stress.
  • Poor nutrition and oral hygiene
  • Smoking
  • Tooth, throat and mouth infections


  • Take the prescribed antibiotic if there is fever.
  • Maintain good oral hygiene regularly, brush and floss the teeth thoroughly at least 2 times every day especially after each meal and at bedtime to prevent development of trench mouth.
  • Prepare a salt water rinse by mixing ½ teaspoon salt and a cup of water and rinse the mouth using this solution to help in soothing the sore gums. Hydrogen peroxide can also be used in rinsing the gums to help with the removal of dead or dying tissues of the gums.
  • Take the prescribed pain medications such as analgesics to lessen the discomfort caused by trench mouth. Apply lidocaine to the gums if there is severe pain.
  • Visit the dentist regularly to have the teeth cleaned and remove plaque once the gums become tender.


  • Maintain good general health such as proper nutrition and regular exercises. Eat a healthy diet by eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. Eat whole grains instead of refined grains and increase the consumption of proteins such as fish or legumes and low-fat dairy foods.
  • Minimize stress by performing relaxation techniques, yoga and regular exercises. Maintain a hobby in a healthy way to cope up with stress.
  • Avoid exposure to irritants such as smoke and avoid eating hot or spicy foods.
  • Brushing and flossing at least 2 times every day or as often as needed. Maintain regular dental cleaning and use antiseptic mouthwashes.
  • Stop smoking or using tobacco products to prevent the development of trench mouth.

Treating cuts and scrapes in children

March 25th, 2016 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Treating cuts and scrapes in children)

A cut is usually caused by an encounter with a sharp object such as a knife or razor blade. Cuts can also happen on objects with thin edges such as paper or a thin cardboard box. A scratch is usually caused an abrasive surface such as sand paper, concrete and unfinished wood.

Children can get cuts and scratches once in a while, but are usually minor wounds and can be easily treated.


  • Redness or swelling around the wound
  • Bleeding
    Cuts and scrapes

    Clean the wound, if it is bleeding. Place sterile gauze or a clean cloth and apply firm pressure until the bleeding stops.

  • Irritation or pain at the surface of the skin


  • Wash the hands before helping the affected child to prevent the wound from getting infected and allow the child sit or lie down.
  • Clean the wound, if it is bleeding. Place sterile gauze or a clean cloth and apply firm pressure until the bleeding stops.
  • Hold the affected area under cool running water and rub it gently using a clean cloth. Just remember to avoid using hot water. Bottled water or a saline wound spray can also be used in cleaning the wound. Avoid using iodine, alcohol, mercurochrome and hydrogen peroxide in cleaning the wound to minimize the irritation and pain.
  • If the wound is not too deep but has debris or grit, clean the area using a pair of tweezers that has been sterilized with alcohol or boiling water to pick up the dirt and debris.
  • Apply a cold compress or ice pack on the bruise at least for 20 minutes to prevent internal bleeding.
  • Elevate the affected area for at least 15 minutes. Seek medical care if the bruise becomes worse.
  • Apply the prescribed antibacterial cream or spray to prevent infection.
  • Cover the wound using Band-Aid or sterile gauze to prevent infections. Utilize an adhesive or sticky bandage in covering the scrape or cut until it becomes dry and a scab has already formed. Take note that this help protect the fresh wound, lessen pain and oozing from wound.


  • If the wound is deep, seek medical care for tetanus vaccination immediately.
  • Cuts and scrapes that are in the healing process should not be exposed to sunlight to prevent markings or scarring of the affected area. Protect the affected area with clothing, dressing or applying sunscreen on the area.
  • Maintain good skin care by applying a moisturizer and avoiding using harsh soaps or cleansers.
  • Seek medical help immediately if bleeding cannot be stopped, the cut is deep, the cause of the cut or scrape an animal or human and cuts or scrapes that affects sensitive areas such as the eyes, face, genital or anal area.
  • If signs of infections such as pain, fever, redness and pus are present, it is vital to seek medical help immediately.

Eczema in toddlers

March 25th, 2016 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Eczema in toddlers)

Eczema is a chronic skin disorder usually common in toddlers and infants. Eczema is characterized by rough, raised, red and itchy patches that are either dry or oozing. Among children, it is usually caused by atopic dermatitis which is hypersensitivity to allergens found in the environment.


  • Eczema usually runs in families
  • It can be caused by allergy-type conditions such as hay fever or asthma.
  • Bacterial or viral infections
  • Exposure to foods that the child is allergic to
  • Stress
  • The child gets too hot

    The skin becomes itchy, dry and have reddened rash that usually develop in patches found in the elbow creases and behind the knees and can sometimes develop in the neck, face, hands and feet.

  • Direct contact with irritating chemicals such as soap or bubble bath or other items like wool and house dust.
  • After exposure to substances such as dust mite or animal fur
  • A new food is introduced to the child
  • Sweating and drooling can make the condition worse


  • The skin becomes itchy, dry and have reddened rash that usually develop in patches found in the elbow creases and behind the knees and can sometimes develop in the neck, face, hands and feet.
  • The rashes can develop cracks and may bleed especially when scratched due to itchiness. Bacteria can enter into the wound and cause an infection.
  • Eczema comes and goes and in between flare-ups where the skin becomes dry and thickened which known as “lichenification” that is usually seen in folds of the elbow, knee and the wrist.
  • Eczema can develop during infancy usually affecting the face and scalp. Children are able to outgrow eczema by adolescence but in some cases, it persists up to adulthood.
  • The eczematous lesion is sore and red


  • Minimize exposure to house dust and wool as much as possible.
  • When taking a bath, minimize the use of hot water and only use warm water instead.
  • Avoid using scented soaps when taking a bath. Pat the skin dry and avoid rubbing the skin with the towel to avoid aggravating the condition.
  • Keep the nails of the child short to prevent damaging the skin when he/she scratches it.
  • Apply coconut oil on the affected skin to help in moisturizing the skin. Apply the oil after taking a bath.
  • Using aloe vera helps in relaxing the affected area and lessens severe itchiness. Apply the gel at least 2-3 times every day. Remember that aloe vera is also a mild antiseptic which is beneficial for the condition.
  • Extract juice from a cucumber and apply it over the affected area. Another option is place cold slices of cucumber on the lesions to lessen the severe itchiness.
  • Apply calamine lotion at least every morning and evening on the affected area to lessen the irritation and itching.

Treatment for leg cramps in children

March 18th, 2016 | Posted by corinne grace in Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Treatment for leg cramps in children)

Leg cramps are described as sudden uncontrolled contraction of the muscles. Children can experience discomfort caused by leg cramps especially during periods of rapid growth. Leg cramps causes severe pain and disrupts sleep especially when they happen at night.

The cramps can be severe when it affects small children. Overextension of the muscles of the leg or a pinched nerve while sleeping can cause leg cramps. The cramped muscles can be hard to the touch or evidently bulging. Cramping that occurs among children are usually triggered by excessive physical activity during the day.

Causes of leg cramps

  • Performing high-intensity activities such as jumping and running or activities that are new to the child. The fibers of the muscle will form lactic acid as a waste product following an activity and microscopic tears develops once fibers of the muscles are stressed.
  • Excessive perspiration can cause imbalance in the electrolyte balance and impaired regulation of temperature of the body can result to abnormal muscle responses.
    Leg cramps

    Leg cramps are described as sudden uncontrolled contraction of the muscles.

  • Imbalances in the electrolytes
  • Rapid growth of a child increases the incidence of leg cramps at age 12 with maximum incidence between the ages 16 and 18. The bones grow and changes in skeletal alignment needed for the muscles to grow, stretch and some bodily changes.
  • A child with flat feet or other structural disorder of the leg can experience leg cramps due to imbalance of pressure placed upon the muscles of the leg.
  • Conditions such as diabetes, anemia, hypoglycemia and thyroid can experience cramping as symptoms.


  • Perform stretching by holding the heel of the child on one hand and the toes in the next. Gently pull the heel of the child and push the toes up toward the leg. This stretch can help relieve muscle contraction in the calf. Remain in this position until the leg cramps subside.
  • Massage the calf muscle while cramping. Gently stroke the cramping muscle using firm pressure by starting at the ankle and spread up towards the knee. Massage in this manner until the cramping is minimized. Once cramping is minimized, massage the affected muscle using a circular stroke. Wrap an ice pack in a towel and place on the affected muscle for at least 20-30 minutes to lessen the pain.
  • Deficiencies in nutrition such as calcium, potassium and sodium can also cause leg cramps. Increase the consumption of calcium-rich foods such as milk, cheese, yogurt, tofu, almonds and oranges. Additionally, it is also recommended to add potassium-rich foods such as banana, potatoes, tuna, strawberries, carrots and lettuce. After performing strenuous physical activities, provide the child with sports drinks to help replace the lost electrolytes and sodium and also help in preventing leg cramps from developing.
  • Drink coconut water regularly can also help in preventing leg cramps.
  • Drink chamomile tea with a few drops of honey or agave syrup when cramping is happening. Take note that chamomile helps in relaxing the muscles and minimize the occurrence of the leg cramps.

Migraine headaches

March 18th, 2016 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Migraine headaches)

A migraine is described as a severe and painful headache with sensory warnings such as flashes of light, tingling sensations in the arms and legs, blind spots, nausea, vomiting, increased sensitivity to sounds and light as well as visual disturbances known as auras that occurs before the start of an attack.

Symptoms of migraine headaches

  • There is an increased pain during any form of physical activity
  • Pain is severe, throbbing and pulsating
  • Feeling sick and physically sick
  • Incapable of performing regular activities due to pain
  • Sensitivity to sounds and light and can be relieved by lying in a darkened room.
  • Sometimes, there are changes in the body temperature as well as diarrhea and tummy aches.
  • Moderate pain that is felt only on one side of the head during an attack, but can also happen on either side of the head.


Migraine headache

There is an increased pain during any form of physical activity.

  • Migraines can be caused by imbalance in the chemicals in brain such as serotonin which help in regulating the nervous system. Levels of serotonin drop during an attack which causes the trigeminal system to release neuropeptides which spreads to the outer covering of the brain known meninges and result to a headache.
  • Hormonal changes in women can cause migraines
  • Migraines develop during pregnancy or menopause.
  • Eating cheese, salty foods and processed foods as well as skipping meals or fasting.
  • Sensory stimuli such as being exposed to the glare of the sun, bright lights and loud sounds.
  • Unusual smells such as paint thinner, perfume and secondhand smoke
  • Changes in the weather and barometric pressure
  • Use of oral contraceptives and vasodilators such as nitroglycerin


  • Practice relaxation by lying down on bed with the eyes close and then take deep breaths and concentrate on relaxing one group of muscle at a time until every muscle in the body is fully relaxed.
  • Apply an ice pack to minimize tension and migraine headaches which provides a numbing effect that lessens the pain. Wrap ice cubes using a clean towel and place on temples, forehead and at the back of the neck for at least 10-15 minutes several times every day as needed. Another option is to alternately apply hot and cold compress on the affected area for at least 15 minutes several times as needed.
  • Drink ginger tea several times throughout the day until the symptoms are reduced. Drink ginger tea on the onset of the headache. Another option is by chewing a raw piece of ginger root.
  • Drink plenty of water to help hydrate the body which can prevent migraine headaches. Consume decaffeinated beverages to help restrict vessels of blood to relieve the pain. Avoid caffeine to help minimize the severity of the attacks.
  • Take nutritional supplements such as riboflavin, magnesium, coenzyme Q10 and melatonin every day to help lessen the migraines.
  • Rub a few drops of peppermint oil in the forehead and at the back of the neck.

Foot cramps

March 4th, 2016 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Foot cramps)

The feet continuously feel the entire weight of the body when walking and standing. Foot cramps are more common than other spasms of muscle in which they can be involuntary and the painful spasms can affect one or several groups of muscles.

Foot cramps can last for a few minutes or they can happen for days at a time. It usually affects the inner arch and the big toe of the foot. Foot cramps can be described as sudden and sharp pain that immobilizes the affected foot for a few minutes. If cramps happen every day, seek medical help immediately.


  • The muscles feels hard and tensed when touched
  • Pain that can vary in severity and last for a few minutes
  • Can walk on the cramped muscle and helps lessen pain
  • The muscle contract suddenly and cause a severe pain
  • The toes and feet twist into a strange positions for several minutes
    Foot cramps

    Foot cramps can be described as sudden and sharp pain that immobilizes the affected foot for a few minutes.


  • The foot is under stress or pressure like manipulating the foot when performing stretching or yoga sessions
  • Overuse of the feet
  • Dehydration and lack of certain nutrients and minerals for the body
  • Poor blood circulation
  • Some conditions such as diabetes and kidney disease can also cause foot cramps
  • Peripheral nerve disease, pinched nerve, thyroid disorders and brain disorders such as Parkinson’s disease can cause foot cramps.
  • Improper foot wear
  • Injury or trauma
  • Problems of the feet such as sore feet and flat feet
  • Failure to stretch the foot muscles regularly
  • Hormone imbalance


  • Stop performing activities that causes foot cramps and always take time to rest.
  • Muscle cramps happen suddenly and unexpectedly. Stretch the cramped muscles to help stop them quickly. Stretch the arches by holding the toe with the hand while seating, then pull them upward until a stretch can be felt. Remain in this position for at least 30 seconds and then release and if it persists, repeat the procedure.
  • Apply weight on the cramped foot to help in stretching the muscles, tendons and ligaments that are causing the cramping. When the foot starts to cramp, change position so that the weight of the body is on the cramped foot.
  • Massage the affected foot or toes that are cramping at least 2-3 minutes until the cramped muscled is relaxed and the pain is minimized.
  • Apply a heating pad on the affected foot to lessen the tension on the muscle. When the cramp is minimized, apply an ice pack on the area to lessen the soreness and tenderness of the muscles.
  • Wrap the ice pack in a towel and apply on the affected foot for at least 15-20 minutes several times every day until tenderness and soreness of the area is minimized.
  • Apply an ice pack on the bottom of the foot and heel while standing and gently roll a frozen 12 oz. water bottle on the bottom of the foot also helps with the condition. Apply ice regularly on the affected foot to help recover from injury, wearing ill-fitting shoes and overuse.
  • Perform exercises regularly such as aerobic exercises to help in conditioning the muscles tendons and ligaments as well as prevent cramps.