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Tonsil infection

April 9th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Tonsil infection)

A tonsil infection is inflammation of the tonsils. Tonsils are two tissues that are found on both sides of the throat. They function as defense mechanism and prevent the body from developing viral or bacterial infections before affecting the respiratory tract and other parts of the body. The tonsils have cells that trap any infections that enter the body.

Sometimes, the tonsils can become infected and cause inflammation, swelling, discomforts and pain. Tiny white spots forms on the surface of the tonsils which is sign of an infection.

Types of tonsil infections

  • Recurrent tonsillitis or having several episodes of severe tonsillitis per year.
  • Chronic tonsillitis is an infection that last longer than severe tonsillitis with symptoms that includes severe sore throat; halitosis or bad breath and tender lymph nodes in the neck

Symptoms

Tonsil infection

Tenderness of the jaw and neck due to swelling lymph nodes.

  • Difficulty or painful swallowing
  • Severe sore throat
  • Fever and chills
  • A scratchy-sounding voice
  • Earaches
  • Bad breath
  • Tonsils that looks swollen and red
  • A stiff neck
  • Stomachache
  • Headaches
  • Tonsils with white or yellow spots
  • Tenderness of the jaw and neck due to swelling lymph nodes
  • Irritability, poor appetite and excessive drooling in children

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest and install a vaporizer or humidifier inside the room for fast healing of the condition.
  • Use throat lozenges to lessen the pain due to sore throat. Avoid giving lozenges to small children to prevent the risk of choking.
  • Take the prescribed pain medications to lessen the pain and the inflammation.
  • Take the prescribed antibiotics to lessen the pain, the inflammation and for fast healing of the condition.
  • Gargle with warm salt water to eliminate infections or bacteria and lessen the inflammation and the pain. In a cup filled with warm water, add a teaspoon of table salt, mix them well until salt is totally dissolved. Gargle the solution for at least a minute and then spit it out. Avoid swallowing the solution. Repeat the process several times every day for fast healing of the condition.
  • Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • Turmeric is rich in anti-inflammatory and antiseptic properties that lessen the infection and the irritation caused by tonsillitis. Put ½ teaspoon turmeric and ½ teaspoon salt in a cup filled with hot water. Gargle the solution for at least in the morning and in the evening especially before going to sleep at night. Another alternative is mixing turmeric powder and a pinch of ground black pepper in a glass filled with warm milk. Drink the mixture at night for at least 2-3 days for fast healing of the condition.

Tips

  • Avoid direct contact with sick people.
  • Wash hands properly; avoid sharing personal belongings such as toothbrush, eating utensils with other people.
  • Cover mouth especially when sneezing or coughing.
  • Avoid smoking.

Remedies for mumps

April 9th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Remedies for mumps)

Mumps is a disease of the salivary glands that is very contagious caused by paramyxovirus. Infections are caused by direct contact with nasal discharge through sneezing or coughing and saliva from an infected person. The virus can be spread on surfaces usually touched such as handles of doors, cutlery, bowls or plates. The condition causes swelling salivary glands or parotid gland found in the neck.

Mump not properly treated can cause complications such as orchitis which is inflammation of the testicles and cause sterility and other parts of the body which includes the reproductive organs and the brain. Women infected with mumps during pregnancy have a high risk of miscarriage. It can also cause meningitis which is swelling of the membranes of the brain and spinal cord and encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain which is a very dangerous condition if left untreated.

Symptoms of mumps

  • Body aches

    mumps

    Take plenty of rest when feeling tired or weak for fast healing of the condition.

  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • General malaise
  • Headache
  • Low-grade fever
  • Incubation period of mumps is 7-18 days but usually only 10 days after exposure
  • Swollen neck
  • Pain in the ear especially when chewing.
  • Sour taste in the mouth
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Problems with hearing

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest when feeling tired or weak for fast healing of the condition.
  • Take the prescribed pain medications to lessen the fever and the pain.
  • Apply warm or cold compress to the swelling glands. Wrap ice pack in a towel and place to the area to lessen the pain and the swelling. Apply heat using a heat pack. Place a wet damp cloth between the skin and the heat pack to prevent burns and delays the healing. Another alternative is soaking a clean wash cloth in warm water, wring out excess water and then place the cloth on the affected area is also good for the condition.
  • Wear the prescribed athletic supporter to lessen the pain in the groin. Apply ice packs wrapped in a towel in the groin to relieve of the swelling and the pain. Bag of frozen vegetables can also be used in the area.
  • Apply cold compress on swelling breast or abdominal pain to lessen the pain and the inflammation.
  • Drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration caused by fever. Water is best fluid to relieve of the mumps and for fast healing of the condition.

Tips

  • Vaccination against mumps is required for unvaccinated people especially travelling to other parts of the world where the condition is common.
  • Infants and children should be vaccinated against mumps between the ages 12-15 months and second vaccination between 4-6 years old.

Treating sun allergy

April 3rd, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Treating sun allergy)

A sun allergy is a reaction of the immune system to sunlight usually causes a red and itchy rash. It affects the “V” of the neck, outside area of the arm, back of the hands and the lower legs. Sometimes it causes severe reactions such as development of small blisters and hives that spread to other areas of the skin which are covered with clothing.

Types of sun allergy

  • Polymorphous light eruption is an itchy rash on the affected area of the skin.
  • Actinic prurigo or hereditary PMLE – the symptom is more severe and begins earlier usually during childhood or adolescence. A family history of the condition
  • Photoallergic eruption – caused by effect of sunlight on a chemical applied on the skin such as fragrances, sunscreen, cosmetics and antibiotic ointments. Tetracyclines and sulfonamides used for psychiatric medications can also cause this condition.
  • Solar urticaria – develops hives or large, itchy and red bumps on exposed areas of the skin. It usually affects young women.

Symptoms

sun allergy

Apply cold compress on the affect to lessen the burning sensations, redness of the area and for fast healing of the condition.

  • Redness, itching and pain
  • Small bumps that becomes raised patches
  • Blisters or hives
  • Inflamed skin
  • Pain and tingling sensations
  • Fever and chills
  • Swelling of the face
  • Fatigue
  • Dehydration
  • Nausea
  • Headache and dizziness

Treatment

  • Apply cold compress on the affect to lessen the burning sensations, redness of the area and for fast healing of the condition. Soak a clean towel in cool water and place it directly on the blisters. Another alternative is taking a cool water bath is good for the condition. After taking a bath, apply aloe Vera gel on the blisters to relieve of the symptoms.
  • Cover the blisters using clean and dry bandages to prevent development of bacterial infections.
  • Drink a glass of cold water to keep the body hydrated. It helps in restoring the fluids lost due to sun burns. Eat fruits such as watermelon which is good in hydrating the body.
  • Use the prescribed cortisone cream to lessen the itchiness and pain of the affected area.
  • Prescribed oral histamine to heal hives and lessen the itchiness and the redness of the skin.
  • Apply a cold milk compress to the affected area. Soak a clean cloth in cold milk and then dab the cloth on the affected areas for at least 30 minutes to lessen the itchiness and the pain. Rinse off the milk using cold water, pat the area dry and then apply moisturizers in the area to prevent drying of the skin.
  • Apply lip balm on the lips with SPF 30 and above to lessen effects of sun allergy on the area.
  • Apply sun block on the skin with sun protection factor or SPF of 15 or higher. It protects the skin from exposure to both ultra violet A or UVA and ultraviolet B or UVB rays.

Dealing with elbow collateral ligament injury

April 2nd, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Dealing with elbow collateral ligament injury)

Elbow collateral ligament injury is common among athletes. The ligament is found in the inside or medial part of the elbow or the small finger side of the arm. It connects bone together and control movements of the joints. It functions for the stability of the elbow.

Elbow movements that cause bending and twisting of the elbow such as javelin throwing, throwing of a baseball, ice hockey and racquet sports results to excessive stressing of the elbow. This condition can also happen to non athlete people such as falling on an outstretched arm or strong twisting of the arm and cause tearing of the ligaments of the elbow.

Symptoms of ulnar collateral ligament tear

  • Bruising at interior elbow after the injury
  • Pain, tenderness and swelling of the affected elbow

    elbow collateral ligament injury

    Stiffness or incapable of making the elbow straight.

  • Weakened grip or numbness and tingling sensations in the fingers.
  • Stiffness or incapable of making the elbow straight
  • Severe elbow pain
  • A popping sound can be heard when moving the elbow
  • Incapable of throwing normally
  • Tingling or numbness sensations that spreads down the ring and the small fingers
  • A sense of looseness or instability of the elbow
  • Incapable of performing regular activities such as lifting small objects or carrying something by the hand.

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest especially the affected elbow. Avoid performing activities that cause pain in the area for fast healing of the condition.
  • Apply ice using an ice pack. Wrap the ice pack using a towel or a cloth before placing to the area for at least 10-15 minutes to lessen the bleeding, the swelling and the inflammation on the first 48 hours after the injury. The coldness will numb the skin and lessen the pain. Another alternative is soaking a clean washcloth in cool water, and then wrap it around the pack of ice and place on the area is also good for the condition.
  • Compress the area using an elastic bandage. It gives gentle pressure on the tissue around the affected area. It also supports the affected area, lessen the swelling and for proper flow of blood in the area. Do not wrap too tightly to prevent problems with circulations. Take off the bandages at least 2 times every day. Rest the area for a few minutes and then wrap it again.
  • Elevate the affected elbow above the heart to lessen the swelling of the area and increase flow of blood. When resting, prop the area in couple of pillows to keep it in a raised position.
  • Take the prescribed pain medications to reduce the inflammation and the pain.
  • When pain subsides perform gentle exercises with the help of the physical therapist for some strengthening exercises around the affected joint of the elbow, restore range of movement of the elbow and lessen the pain.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on elbow collateral ligament injury is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the indications and how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Treating skier’s thumb

April 2nd, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Treating skier’s thumb)

Skier’s thumb is an injury to the soft tissue or ligament that attaches the bones of the thumb together. This condition is also called gamekeeper’s thumb. It is a chronic injury that develops due to repeated stretching if the ulnar collateral ligament in the thumb.

Scottish fowl hunters, gamekeepers, athletes playing volleyball are susceptible to this condition. People falling onto an outstretched hand while holding a ski pole usually on skiers.

Causes of skier’s thumb

  • Falling on outstretched hand and jams into a packed snow at high speed.
  • Falling on outstretched hand while holding a ski pole on the palm of the hand.
  • Vehicular accidents with the thumb on the steering wheel
  • The thumb is bent in abnormal position

Symptoms

skier’s thumb

Pain at the bottom of the thumb in the web space between the thumb and the index finger.

  • Swelling of the thumb
  • Pain at the bottom of the thumb in the web space between the thumb and the index finger
  • Wrist pain
  • Incapable to grasp or weakness when grasping between the thumb and the index finger
  • Tenderness along the index finger on the side of the thumb
  • Blue or black discoloration of the skin on the affected thumb
  • Severe pain when moving the thumb in all directions

Treatment

  • Rest the affected thumb as much as possible.
  • Immobilize the thumb by wrapping the area using an ACE wrap or use a wrist brace. Put the thumb in the neutral position to keep it immobilized. It will prevent unnecessary movement, lessen the pain and for fast healing of the condition.
  • Apply ice compress on the affected thumb for at least 35 minutes at a time, 4 times every day to lessen the pain and the inflammation. Wrap ice compress in a small cloth or a face towel before placing to the area to prevent further irritation and worsen the condition. Another alternative is using a bag of frozen vegetable such as peas or corn is also good for the condition.
  • Wrap the affected thumb using an elastic wrap to maintain pressure on the sprain.
  • Elevate the affected area above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling and internal bleeding. When lying raise the hand in couple of pillows to keep it elevated.
  • Take the prescribed anti-inflammatory medications to lessen the inflammation and the pain.
  • Seek the help of the physical therapist for some rehabilitation exercises for strength, flexibility, restore range of movement and lessen the pain

Tips

  • Skiers should discard their ski pole during falls. Falling with outstretched hand without the ski pole will minimize the chances of an injury.
  • Use poles with finger-groove grips and not putting restraining devices such as closed grip or a wrist strap.
  • When driving, keep the thumbs along with the other fingers outside of the steering wheel.
  • Stretch the hand and the muscles of the finger every day.
  • Wear a thumb stabilizer for protection of the ulnar collateral ligament without limiting the functions and movement of the hand.

Avulsion

March 30th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Avulsion)

An avulsion is a serious injury where the skin has been partially or fully torn off. These wounds can bleed heavily and rapidly and must be treated immediately. This is commonly caused by a fall, accident, or another injury. In this case, the skin that was torn must be removed as the skin is too damaged to be naturally repaired by the body. Because the skin is torn off, stitching of this wound is not possible because of missing tissue. These wounds are usually large and leave scars because of the missing tissue.

It is recommended to immediately seek medical attention when you receive an avulsion wound.

Taking care of the wound:

  • Wash the wound to disinfect it, remove any dirt and debris from the wound
  • Control and stop the bleeding by applying pressure and elevation to the wound
  • Wrap the wound with a clean bandage

You can also take painkillers to ease the pain that is accompanied by the wound, but you may need to talk to your doctor about what kind of medication you should take if you have an allergy to medication or complications.

Avulsion

Wash the wound to disinfect it, remove any dirt and debris from the wound.

Keep the wound and your bandage clean and dry for at least a week, ensure that you have enough nutrition and rest for the wound.

While most wounds can be treated at home without the need to see a doctor, you may be required to see one if the injury is serious and can be determined by some factors.

See a doctor when:

  • The wound is large and is deeper than half an inch
  • The bleeding doesn’t stop even after you’ve applied pressure
  • The bleeding has continued for more than half an hour
  • The injury was a result of a serious accident

There are numerous techniques for treating the wound. Your doctor may close the wound by using stitches, sutures or skin glue. You may also receive a tetanus shot to prevent you from contracting tetanus.

If you’ve received bandages or dressings as suggested by your doctor, you should keep your hands clean always to prevent infection as you change your bandages or dressings. Do this in a clean or sterile environment, disinfect the wound and keep it dry before applying a new bandage or dressing. Safely dispose of your used bandages or dressings in a plastic bag.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on an avulsion is for learning purposes only. Learn how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Frostbite

March 29th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Frostbite)

A frostbite is an injury caused by prolonged exposure to cold temperatures, this kind of injury freezes the skin and its underlying layers. Frostbite can lead to serious issues and may cause a limb to cease functioning and lead to gangrene which requires amputation.

Frostbite commonly occurs on extremities such as your fingers, toes, nose, ears but can also affect your cheeks, chin or lips and so on. Frostbite can also affect skin that is covered by gloves or thick clothing if the cold penetrates it.

Signs and symptoms of frostbite:

  • Cold, prickly feeling on the skin
  • Numbness
  • Discoloration of the skin to either a reddish, bluish, whitish or yellowish color

    Frostbite

    Frostbite commonly occurs on extremities such as your fingers, toes, nose, ears but can also affect your cheeks, chin or lips and so on.

  • Joint or muscle stiffness

Because frostbite causes skin numbness, you may not notice it until it has been pointed out to you.

There are also numerous factors that can contribute to increasing the risk of frostbite:

  • Under the influence of alcohol
  • Exhaustion or dehydration
  • Spending too much time outside in the cold climate, such as the homeless, those who are hiking, hunters, etc.

Different stages of frostbite:

  1. The first stage is frostnip. This is where the only the surface of the skin is frozen. This stage can be identified with signs of pain and itching then eventually numbness. Frostnip does not cause permanent damage to the skin because only the top layers are frozen.
  2. The second stage is superficial frostbite. In this stage, tissues may have ice crystals and you may start to feel warm. When you rewarm yourself, your skin may appear discolored and blisters may form after a few hours, typically a day later.
  3. The third stage is deep frostbite and can be life-threatening and lead to complications. At this stage, the freezing affects muscles up to nerves which can completely paralyze and disable limbs. If limbs or extremities are destroyed by this stage of frostbite, they can lead to gangrene and must be removed through amputation.

The most effective method to prevent yourself from being affected by frostbite is by wearing thick clothing if you are living in very cold places, once you feel the cold its best to move indoors and warm yourself. It’s also best to keep yourself dry and have your extremities covered, such as your ears, hands and feet.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on frostbite is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the indications of this condition by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Laceration

March 28th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Laceration)

A laceration is a skin injury where the tissues or skin is opened forcefully. Lacerations come in various sizes, length, and depth, depending on how severe the impact was from the sharp object. Small lacerations don’t require medical attention and can heal naturally without the use of stitches.

Lacerations can be caused by objects that strike the skin with such force that it tears the skin apart, these can be acquired from sharp objects like knives or from car accidents. Wounds come in various sizes, length, and depth – the bigger the more severe.

A small-sized wound would be considered a minor wound and wouldn’t require much medical attention and can heal within a few days only while a large-sized wound requires medical attention has numerous treatments ranging from stitches to tissue glue to seal the wound.

While most lacerations are minor and can heal naturally without stitches, there are cases that stitches are required for the wound to heal.

Laceration

Wounds come in various sizes, length, and depth – the bigger the more severe.

Signs and symptoms of a laceration:

  • A deep cut on your body that may reveal underlying layers like fat or muscles
  • Bleeding coming from the wound

Caring for the wound varies on how severe the cut is. First to do is to clean the wound and remove any debris or dirt, most wounds won’t require an antibiotic unless there is an infection present. If the wound is minor, then a bandage or a dressing will do to secure the wound but if the wound is large then a visit to the doctor is recommended as more procedures will be required to seal the wound.

Minor wounds usually heal within a week or so and won’t leave without too much scarring.

Your doctor may suggest a tetanus shot if the wound has been caused by an animal bite or a dirty pointed object, such as a rusted metal object like a knife.

Your doctor may advise stitches to secure and seal the wound but may also seal the wound using other methods such as skin glue. The wound will also be secured by a bandage of dressing. Replace the bandage or dressing when you notice it becomes dry or dirty to prevent infection and this should be done at least once a day.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on a laceration is for learning purposes only. Learn to properly manage this type of open wound by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Dealing with buttock contusion

March 20th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Dealing with buttock contusion)

Buttock contusion is bleeding in the muscles due to direct impact to the area caused by falling or hit by a hard object such as a hard ball. This condition is common in people playing high jumping, sliding in baseball, hockey, ice skating, pole vaulting, football and gymnastics. Old people taking coagulation drugs such as Coumadin are susceptible to this condition.

Causes of buttock contusion

  • Slipping on ice
  • Buttock injury
  • Coagulopathy
  • Spinal fracture
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Mongolian spot
  • Blunt trauma
  • Anticoagulation medications
  • Child abuse

    buttock contusion

    Tenderness of the area when sitting down or when it is touched.

Symptoms

  • Tenderness of the area when sitting down or when it is touched
  • Bruising
  • Pain in the buttock
  • Pain with movement of thigh against resistance
  • A hard lump under the skin with discoloration from red-blue and black and then changes to green and yellow which can be a sign of hematoma.
  • Stiffness with movement of the thigh in forward direction caused by stretching of the gluteus muscles.

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest for at least 48 hours. Avoid performing activities that can further irritate and increase pressure on the soft tissue to prevent inflammation.
  • Apply cold compress on the area within 24-48 hours after hematoma starts to develop. Wrap the ice pack in a towel before placing to the area for 15-20 minutes to prevent damage on the tissue. Another alternative placing a melting ice on a towel and then place it on the area for 10 minutes, 4-8 times every day. It constricts the blood vessels and lessens the swelling and build up of blood under the skin. It also lessens the metabolism of local tissue which lessens the development of hypoxia which is damage to the cell caused by a reduced supply of oxygen in the area.
  • After 24-48 hours apply warm compress on the area to increase flow of blood and for fast healing of the condition. It lessens the pain and the inflammation.
  • Massage the affected area in circular movement or long strokes for proper flow of blood and increase venous return. Massaging breaks down superficial clots making them easier to be dissolved. Avoid massage if there is pain in the area.
  • Take a relaxing warm bath to increase flow of blood in the area, to lessen the pain and eliminate formation of blood clots.
  • Take pain medications to lessen the pain and the inflammations.
  • Maintain hydration by drinking at least 1.5 -2 liters of water every day. Water flushes out toxins in the body
  • Start performing some strengthening and stretching exercises with the help of the physical therapist to restore full range of movement of the glute muscles.
  • Pineapples which has bromelain and rich in anti-inflammatory properties to lessen pain and for fast healing of the condition. Eat or drink pineapple juice for fast healing of the bruise. Another alternative is taking bromelain supplement 250-500 milligrams between meals.

More Information

The details posted on this page on a buttock contusion is for learning purposes only. To learn to properly manage the injury, enroll in a first aid course with one of our training providers.

Remedies for juvenile idiopathic arthritis

March 19th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Remedies for juvenile idiopathic arthritis)

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is a disease that causes inflammation and swelling of joints.  It is a childhood disease that causes stiff and painful joints. Some children outgrow this condition after treatment but others still continue treatment until adulthood.

Types of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

  • Oligoarticular – the common and mildest form where 1-4 joints are affected. Pain can be felt in the ankles, knees, toes, fingers, elbows, hips and wrist.
  • Polyarticular – affects 5 or more joints and becomes severe overtime. It is similar to rheumatoid arthritis in adults.
  • Systemic – the most severe, pain in many joints and spreads to the organs.
  • Enthesitis – affects areas of the ligaments and tendons that are connected to the bones. It also affects the joints.
  • Psoriatic – a combination of tenderness of the joint and inflammation with psoriasis of skin.

What are the causes

juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to lessen the inflammation and the pain.

  • A very active immune system attacking tissues of the joint
  • A certain gene mutations making a person prone to factors such as the virus which causes the disease.

Symptoms

  • Pain, stiffness and swelling of the joints
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Problems with walking
  • Fever
  • Rashes
  • Development of inflammatory eye disease

Treatment

  • Apply heat on the affected area for at least 20 minutes to lessen the stiffness and the pain of the joints. Another alternative is soaking a clean towel in water or placed in a microwave for 15 to 30 seconds. Hot water bottles can be placed in the affected area. Place a damp cloth between the skin and the hot water bottle to prevent burning the skin and delays the healing. Avoid using heat if the affected area is warm and red.
  • Let the child wear footed pajamas and thermal underwear to lessen stiffness of the area in the morning. Sleeping in a sleeping bag, using electric blanket or a heated waterbed is also good for the condition.
  • A warm bath or shower after waking up in the morning to relieve of the stiffness and after taking a bath perform gentle stretches.
  • Take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to lessen the inflammation and the pain.
  • The affected joints can be injected with prescribed corticosteroid to lessen the inflammation especially with oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Steroid medication given orally or through an IV with severe pain in the joints, having a fever or pericarditis.
  • Performing regular exercises with the help of the physical therapist to restore range of movement of the joints, muscle strength and prevention of muscle contractures. Muscle contracture is the shortening of a joint or a muscle permanently especially if the muscles and tendons become very tight for too long.
  • Seek the help of the occupational therapist by providing the child ways of protection from playing and performing school activities without worsening the symptoms.