Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Emergency 101: Important Things To Do When Your Nose Bleeds

May 18th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Emergency 101: Important Things To Do When Your Nose Bleeds)

Some Facts About Nosebleeds

People have different reactions to nosebleeds – it can be frightening, scary or dramatic. But luckily, nosebleeds are not severe, though it can happen to anyone at anytime. Nosebleeds normally happen when the nose is irritated or because of colds. Also, the air that we breathe can also contribute to the incidence of nosebleeds. For instance, during summer and winter months the air becomes very dry (resulting from the coldness or dryness of the weather), which makes the air moving in and out of the nose dry, too. This could irritate the nostrils, which contain thousand of small blood vessels. Once irritated, the membrane linings inside the nose can easily get cut and cracked. So, once a person picks, rubs or blows his/her nose, it can irritate the membrane linings causing nosebleeds. In this case, stopping the bleeding of the nose is the top priority of first aids.

What Are The Types Of Nosebleeds?

There are two types of nosebleeds – anterior and posterior nosebleeds.

  • Anterior nosebleeds are the most common types of nosebleeds we experience, where the bleeding comes from the frontal blood vessels of the nose. They are easier to manage and control.
  • Posterior nosebleeds, however, are more complicated and may be a result of a pre-existing medical condition, so it is needed to be checked up by a physician. It is more commonly seen in older patients.

Important First Aid Tips For A Bleeding Nose

  • Sit straight with your body bending forward, because this helps drain out the blood on your nose. Also, keeping the bleeding part elevated from the heart is the best way to stop the bleeding.
Sitting and bending forward is the right position to drain out the blood from the nose.

Sitting and bending forward is the right position to drain out the blood from the nose.

  • Softly pinching the end portion of the nose can also help the bleeding stop.
  • Placing ice pack on the nose bridge is also a helpful remedy for nose bleeds.
  • Do not blow your nose, because it can further irritate the nostrils and aggravate the bleeding
  • Do not swallow the blood, because this can make you choke, cough or even vomit.
  • Never tilt your head back, because it only makes the blood run back into the throat.
  • Once the nosebleed stops, remain calm and avoid unnecessary movement. When you get nervous, your blood pumps faster and it can possible trigger another nosebleed. Too much movement and activities can also strain the affected nose, which might cause another episode of nosebleed.
  • If the bleeding does not stop after you have conducted first aid interventions, it is important to call a doctor to have your condition checked. This way, they can determine if the nose bleed is associated to a pre-existing medical condition.
  • Finally, if your nosebleeds occur too frequently, you should see a doctor to further evaluate your condition.

Related Video on Nosebleeds

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Nosebleed (Epitaxis, Nose Bleed, Bloody Nose) (2014). Retrieved online on March 18, 2014 from

Nosebleeds. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved online on March 18, 2014 from

First Aid for Choking

May 4th, 2014 | Posted by Lana Badon in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Choking)

Choking is a life threatening injury that can happen to a child or a friend of yours. No one can predict accidents. Hence, it is a must to know the basic first aid training. Taking up short courses for first aid training gives you the knowledge on how to save lives, proper handling of different first aid materials, and to avoid more accidents to happen.

Choking is one of the most common accidents that may occur in children and adults. Choking happen when an object accidentally blocked partially or completely the throat of a person. Food is the leading cause of choking for children and adults. Children below 1 year old usually insert small object into their mouth – that is there way of exploring things around them and that causes choking or death. Blocked air path decreases oxygen supply to the brain, and brain can only survive without oxygen supply for approximately 5 to 10 minutes. Lack of oxygen to the brain may likely develop serious and possibly irreversible brain damage.

Mild choking in adults and children over one year old – This occurs when the air path is partly blocked. Affected persons usually can’t be able to speak, breathe or cough. An adult or a child can remove the blockage by themselves.

Steps to help an adult and a child over one year old with mild choking:

  • Reassure them.
  • Advise the person to keep coughing to be able to remove the foreign object.
  • Assist the person to remove the blockage using two fingers and thumb to grasp the object.

Signs of Severe Choking:

  • Clasped hand on throat – universal sign of choking
  • Inability to speak
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Unable to cough forcefully
  • Loss of consciousness if blockage is not cleared.

First-Aid Treatment for Severe Choking:   

Heimlich Maneuver

Heimlich Maneuver


In helping an adult or a child over one year old who is severely choking, an abdominal thrust should be performed. It is widely known as Heimlich Maneuver. Here are the steps to be taken:

  1. Stand or position yourself behind the person and wrap your arms around the waist. The rescuer’s arms should be just above the belt line.
  2. Make a fist with one hand and grasp the fist with your other hand. Make sure that you place your fist, thumb side in, against the patient’s abdomen between the waist and the rib cage.
  3. Press your fist abruptly into the patient’s abdomen with a quick inward-upward thrust to increase airway pressure to remove the obstructing object.
  4. Perform this maneuver 5 times to be able to quickly remove the obstruction.
  5. Repeat the procedure until the object comes out of the patient’s mouth.

How To Treat A Cold or Sore Throat At Home

April 7th, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on How To Treat A Cold or Sore Throat At Home)

Are you suffering from a cold or sore throat? You do not have to worry because you can deal with the problem from the comfort of your home without having to seek for medical assistance or going to the chemist to buy drugs. There are a wide range of home remedies for cold you can use to get rid of the cold and prevent other related ailments. The good thing about the home remedies is that they help eliminate the symptoms immediately unlike the artificial drugs that take some times to cure the health problem.

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Cold or Sore Throat Home Remedies

Garlic tea

Garlic tea is a well known for strengthening the immune system. It is effective in treating cold or sore throat because it has both antibacterial and antiviral properties that make it effective to cure cold, flu and coughs. One of the best ways to take full advantage of the healing power of garlic is to take fresh garlic tea. All you need to do is to sweeten it with a little raw honey to make it delicious and boost its power to heal the cold

  • Peel two to three cloves of fresh garlic and crush them lightly.
  • Add them to two cups of water and allow it to boil.
  • Reduce the heat and allow it to simmer for another fifteen minutes.
  • Strain the garlic and let the tea cool down to a temperature that is right for the mouth.
  • Add the raw honey, squeeze a lemon juice and drink as much as you can.

Honey and red onion cough syrup

This is another home remedy for both adults and children suffering from cold or flu. Prepare it using the following procedure.

  • Peel, wash and slice the whole onion horizontally.
  • Starting with the base of the onion, arrange the slices in a bowl alternating with layers of the honey or brown sugar. However, raw honey that has healing properties is more effective.
  • Continue adding the layers of the onion and sweetener until the onion is fully reconstructed in the bowl.
  • Cover and let the sweetened onion remain in the bowl on your counter for twelve to fifteen hours. The next day, you will get one cup or more of the syrup in the bowl.

This syrup contains a range of nutrients, minerals and vitamins from the onion and the honey that help to reduce the cough and sooth the sore throat. Take a spoonful of the syrup as required. The good thing about this syrup is that it does not have the taste of the onion that may make it taste poor when taken.

First Aid for Nosebleeds

March 22nd, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Nosebleeds)
home medicines

First Aid for nose bleed

One of the most common medical emergencies is nosebleeds. This is a problem that affects all people regardless of their age or sex and a topic covered in basic first aid training. The problem mainly occurs as a result of trauma of the nose, nose picking and many others. Just like any other first aid, the first thing you are supposed to do is to check the condition of the patient so that you can make an informed decision on what you are supposed to do. If you realize that the victim is very unstable, you should call an emergency service provider or call 911 for more assistance. Note that as you wait for the emergency health provider to arrive, you need to put some measures to reduce or stop the bleeding because this can be fatal.

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How to carry out nosebleeds first aid

Since nosebleeds involve blood streaming, it is necessary that you wear a disposable face shield or gloves if you have them.

  • Sit the victim down and make sure he or she is leaning slightly forward. Request the victim to pinch the soft, fleshy section of the nose firmly for ten to fifteen minutes.
  • The mouth should be open to allow effective breathing through the mouth and also to spit any blood from the mouth. Ensure there is a sink, container or bowl in front for the victim to spit the blood.
  • Check their blood pressure and pulse to find out if they are normal.
  • After fifteen minutes are over, let the victim release the pressure to find out if the bleeding is under control. If you realize that it is not yet controlled, let the victim continue with the pinching.
  • In case the nosebleeds continues after fifteen minutes of pressure the victim need to be taken to an accident and emergency facility.

Determine what may be the underlying cause

It is good to know what is the underlying cause of the nosebleeds even as you give the first aid. Determine if the cause may be as a result of the following.

  • Trauma or recent surgery
  • If the victim is suffering from leukemia, hemophilia or if there are cases of bleeding disorders in their family.
  • Check for any sign of facial pain, rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, allergens, cranial neuropathy and other environmental factors.

If the nosebleed stop with first aid, you can consider administering topical antiseptic to the victim. In case the victim suffers from regular bleeding of the nose, it is good to visit nose, ear or throat specialist for more checkups.

First Aid for Minor Cuts

February 13th, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Minor Cuts)

Wounds can be classified as minor or major depending on their extent in terms of size and how deep they are. Minor wounds can turn to be a major problem if they are not handled in the right way. Regardless of whether a cut is minor or major immediate intervention is crucial to avoid more damage from happening. To ensure that the cut do not turn to be a major health issues follow these first aid steps.

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First Aid Steps for Minor Cuts

The first thing that you need to do is to check the wound to determine how dangerous it may be. If the wound shows the following signs you need to call 911 or any other efficient emergency service provider.

  • If blood is spurting out profusely
  • If the cut has a lot of bleeding
  • In case the bleeding cannot stop after ten minutes or steady pressure or any other method used.

It is good to check whether the wound may require stitching because a cut should be stitched within six hours from the time it occurred. The only exceptions are the minor cuts that occur to the scalp and face which can be stitched within twenty four hours.

Stop or Reduce the Bleeding

After examining the wound, you need to try to stop the bleeding immediately. You can do this by applying direct pressure on the minor cut.

how to dress minor cuts

Tending to a minor cut

Clean the Wound and Prevent Infection

  • Use warm water and gentle shop to cleanse the cut to remove any dirt that may bring germs to the wound.
  • To minimize the risk of infection, you need to put an antibiotic ointment. Only use ointment that is approved and follow the instructions. If the ointment applied leads to a rash, stop applying it.
  • Put a sterile bandage on the minor cuts to cover and offer more protection.
  • Put a sterile bandage on the area. In some people, antibiotic ointments may cause a rash. If this happens, stop using the ointment.

When to Call for Emergency Help

You should call for medical help in case of the following:

  • The minor cut is over the joint.
  • If it becomes hard to get the cut or make the laceration clean.
  • You should also call for medical help if the victim has not received tetanus injection or booster for the last five to ten years.
  • Minor cuts caused by animal or human bite also require to be attended by a physician.

If the wound get treated at home, remove the bandage after some few days to boost the healing process.

First Aid For Asthma Attack

February 13th, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid For Asthma Attack)

Patients suffering from asthma have high chances of getting asthma attack. Some of the common symptoms that will show you that a patient has the attack include difficulty in talking, breath shortness and change of lips or fingernails to blue color. Read the article to understand how you can handle such emergency situations.

Follow Asthma plan

If the victim has a personal asthma action plan from a doctor it is advisable to follow it strictly. Follow the directions used to provide the medication and in case of an acute asthma attack seek medical help immediately.

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Provide asthma attack first aid

If the patient does not follow any action plan, you need to offer first aid for asthma to rescue him or her from the fatal situation.

  • Make the patient sit upright in a comfortable manner and make any tight cloth loose.
  • If the patient has medications such as an inhaler, help him to use it.
  • In case an inhaler is not available, use the one in your first aid kit or borrow from another person.

There are two types of inhalers, then one with a spacer and one without the spacer.

Using an inhaler with a spacer

first aid for asthma attack

Using an inhaler

  • Remove the cap and shake it well.
  • Insert it into the spacer.
  • Make sure that the victim breathe out fully and put his mouth firmly around the mouthpiece of the spacer.
  • Press the inhaler instantly in order to deliver a puff.
  • Then, allow the patient to breathe in a slow manner through the mouth and then make him hold breath for ten to twelve seconds.
  • Give four fluffs and wait for a minute between each of them.

Follow similar steps even when using an inhaler without the spacer.

If breathing is still an issue even after using the inhaler, follow these steps to deal with the asthma attack.

  • After the four puffs, wait for extra four minutes. If the breathing does not normalize, giver more four puffs.
  • If there are no changes continue giving four puffs until the emergency service provider arrives. In case the victim has severe asthma attack provide seven to nine puffs after every five minutes.

Monitor the victim until the emergency service provider arrives. If you recognize drowsiness, this means that the problem may be getting worse. You should also not assume that there is some improvement if no wheezing can be heard from the victim. This can also show that the asthma attack is going to another dangerous level.


Home care – foreign object in the eye

January 31st, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Home care – foreign object in the eye)

In case you suspect that you or a family member has a foreign object in the eye, it is important to perform first aid measures at home right away in order to avoid infection and the possibility of damage to the vision.

foreign object in the eye

Foreign object in the eye

A foreign object in the eye can range from eyelashes, dust, sand, sawdust, metal particles, cosmetics and dirt. These objects can enter the eye through daily activities and do not actually cause severe damage as long as they are quickly removed from the eye. In doing so, damage to the eye structures can be prevented.

Precautions if there is a foreign object in the eye

  • Instruct the individual not to rub or apply pressure on the affected eye
  • Avoid using any instruments or utensils such as cotton swabs or tweezers on the surface of the eye
  • If the individual wears contact lenses, do not remove unless there is abrupt swelling or due to chemical injury

Preliminary steps before performing home care

  • Always wash your hands thoroughly
  • Check the affected eye in a location that has bright light
  • When examining the eye, instruct the individual to look up while pulling the lower lid down and then instruct the individual to look down while flipping up the interior of the upper lid

Steps when removing a foreign object in the eye

Always remember that the safest method for removing a foreign object in the eye tends to differ depending on the type of object being removed and its location in the eye.

The most common location for foreign objects is under the upper eyelid. If this is the case, there are steps to follow:

  • Initially immerse the side of the face of the individual in a flat container of water. Once the affected eye is underwater, instruct the individual to open and close the eye several times in order to flush out the foreign object.
  • Similar results can be achieved if an eyecup will be used. An eyecup can be purchased in any drugstore.
  • In case the object is still embedded, simply pull out the upper lid and stretch it over the lower lid in order to loosen the object.

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Foreign object lodged beneath the lower eyelid

  • You have to pull out the lower lid or press down on the skin beneath the eyelid in order to see underneath it.
  • If the foreign object is visible, you can tap it using a damp cotton swab.
  • In case the object is difficult to remove, you can flush it out by using flowing water on the eyelids while holding it open.
  • An eyecup can also be used to flush out the object.

In case there are several miniature fragments from a particular substance such as sand, it is important to flush them out instead of removing them one at a one.

  • With a wet cloth, use it to remove any particles for the surrounding area of the affected eye.
  • Immerse the side of the face of the individual that has the affected eye in a flat container of water. Once the eye is submerged in water, instruct the individual to open and close the eye several times in order to flush out the particles.
  • For young children, simply pour a glass of warm water into the eye while holding the child face up. Keep the eyelid open while pouring water into the eye to flush out the particles.

First Aid for Fever – Simple Steps

January 13th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Fever – Simple Steps)

When one has a fever, it can indicate a variety of conditions, including infection. The normal temperature slightly differs from the average body temperature of 37 C or 98.6 F. For infants and young children, especially

Temperature monitoring is vital for fever

Temperature monitoring is vital when a person has fever.

the newborns, a slight elevated temperature can indicate a serious condition. As for the adults, a fever is not considered dangerous until it goes up to 39.4 C or 103 F or even higher. Adults who are suffering from fever below 38.9 C or 102 F should not be treated using any medications unless it is instructed by your doctor. For fever of 38.9 C or 102 F or higher, your doctor usually recommends over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.

Aspirin can be used by adults but it is not recommended for adolescents and children below 19 years old. Take note that it might trigger Reye’s syndrome, which is a rare but fatal disorder. Additionally, do not give ibuprofen to infants below 6 months old.

Taking the temperature

If you are using the latest thermometers, most of them provide a digital reading. Some take the temperature in the ear canal quickly, making them useful for older adults and young children. Other thermometers are used orally, under the arm or rectally. If you are going to use a digital thermometer, make sure that you have carefully read the instructions so that you can take the temperature accurately. On normal circumstances, the temperature is usually elevated at 4-6PM and at its lowest around 6AM.

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Oral route

Taking the temperature orally is simple. All you have to do is to position the bulb of the thermometer under the tongue. Instruct the individual to close the mouth for the required length of time or once you hear a beep, usually in a minute.

Axillary route

Even though this method could not provide accurate results, an oral thermometer can be used. Simply position the thermometer on the axilla with the arm down. The arm should be held across the chest. Wait for the results for one minute or when there is a beep.

Rectal route for infants

For young children, the rectal route of taking the temperature is usually used. Initially, apply a lubricant on the bulb of the thermometer and position the child on his/her stomach.  Insert the bulb carefully ½ – 1inch into the rectum and hold in place for a minute or until the beep sounds.

When to seek medical attention

It is important to seek medical help for fever if a child younger than 2 years old has fever for more than a day or more than 3 days as well as babies older than 3 months with a temperature of 38.9 C or 102 F or higher. As for adults, temperature higher than 39.4 C or 103 F or fever for more than 3 days should seek medical attention. It is important that you learn all about fever and the causes. Taking the temperature is an important part of  advanced first aid training that you have to be familiar with.


September 25th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Basic First Aid Skills - (0 Comments)

Keratosis pilaris is a general skin condition that causes uneven patches and tiny, acne-like bumps, especially on the arms, cheeks and buttocks.

Keratosis pilaris can frustrate a person since it is usually difficult to treat. These bumps usually do not hurt or itch and are usually white or red in color. However, this condition is not serious and disappears by the age of thirty. Should a person contract this condition, prescription medications and self care measures can improve the appearance of the condition.

Keratosis pilaris signs and symptoms

Keratosis pilaris is mostly common in young children although it can occur at any age. Signs and symptoms include but are not limited to dry, rough and sometimes itchy skin in the areas with bumps, small white or red bumps, characteristically on the upper arms, buttocks, cheeks or legs. This skin condition also worsens in winter when the humidity is low and the kin tends to be drier, it might be limited to individual, sandpaper-like bumps resembling goose flesh. In other cases though, bumps may become inflamed and cause scarring, particularly on the face. Keratosis pilaris gradually resolves on its own.

When to seek medical attention for keratosis pilaris

It is worth noting that keratosis pilaris is often not a serious medical condition therefore its treatment isn’t necessary. Should one get concerned about the appearance of the skin, he or she ought to consult the family doctor or a specialist in skin diseases.

Keratosis pilaris causes

Keratosis pilaris comes about as a result of buildup of a keratin. This hard protein that usually protects the skin from dangerous substances and infections forms a scaly plug that blocks the opening of the hair follicle. Most often than not, the plugs form, causing patches of uneven, bumpy skin. The reason why keratin builds up still remains unknown, yet it may occur in association with genetic diseases or with other skin conditions. Keratosis pilaris also occurs in otherwise healthy people and dry skin usually makes this condition worse.

Keratosis pilaris treatment

First Aid CoursesKeratosis pilaris has no universal treatment as most options, including self-care measures and medicated creams usually focus on softening the keratin deposits in the skin. Using medications on a regular basis may improve the appearance of one’s skin but when he or she stops, the condition returns. Even with medical treatment, keratosis pilaris may persist for many years thus; individuals are advised to take steps that keep their skin moist and healthy such as use of warm water and limiting bath time to about 10 minutes or less, avoiding deodorant and antibacterial detergents that are usually harsh and drying soaps. In the contrary, choose mild soaps that have added oils and fats. Lastly, one can use a humidifier to add moisture inside the homes since low humidity dries out the skin.

People should always be wary of any bump-like growths in their body especially on their limbs and buttocks as that may be a case of keratosis pilaris. If keratosis pilaris worsens, seek the medical advice from a doctor.

Part if your role as a first aider is to communicate with others, particularly the

emergency services. First Aid Classes will give you the skills and knowledge required to give an appropriate handover of the right information in order to get the response you need from the service you require.

Many countries have a national number to dial for emergency services. The emergency services number for the Canada and the United States of America (US) is 911, the UK is 999, and the European Union (EU) is 112.

If possible, when you are a first aider at an incident, try to get help from others who may be able to make the area safe, telephone for help or get first aid equipment. St Mark James First Aid manual suggests that they may also be able to control traffic or onlookers, help control bleeding or support a limb, help maintain the patients privacy or assist in transporting the patient to a safe place if they are in danger where they were found.

Whilst they are doing all of this, you can be commencing essential first aid treatments, therefore acting quicker and hopefully getting a better outcome or response as the patient may be treated before they deteriorate too much.

However, remember that bystanders may not react as well as you hope, they may be in shock, or if they have no first aid training they could feel helpless or frightened. They could be distressed if they are witnessed of an incident, or could be a concerned relative or even involved in the incident themselves. If they have been involved be aware that they could also have injuries.

workplace approved Training recommends that you remember to stay calm in this situation, and ask others to help you in a firm but gentle manner. Be clear when giving instructions as they may not have the same level of understanding as you do.

If no one else is available, you may need to telephone for help yourself. You will need to state your name clearly and let them know that you are a first aider. The operator will firstly need your telephone number and the exact location of where you are. Try to give a road name or number, and be as specific as possible naming any junctions or nearby landmarks.

You can then give them further information on the incident itself. Give them any information you have on the patient(s); if possible include details on the number of patients, their sex, age or approximate ag

First Aid Classes

First Aid Classes

e, and anything you know about their condition or suspect. Also notify them of any potential hazards like gas, toxic substances, power-line damage, or even bad weather conditions like fog or ice.

Remember, as per workplace approved First Aid manual, always stay calm and try to keep a clear head in order to give the best treatment, organise helpers at the scene, and be able to give clear practical information to the emergency services operator or when handing over to the professionals when they arrive.


First Aid Manual (The Authorised Manual of St. John Ambulance, St Andrew’s Ambulance Association and the British workplace approved), 2006.