Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

How does One Deal with a Hangover?

June 3rd, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How does One Deal with a Hangover?)

One of the most common types of conditions that people will face from time to time  is the question, how does one deal with a hangover? A number of us are all too familiar with the throbbing headaches, the fatigue, the chills as well as the amnesia that usually follows binge-drinking. The effects are not usually a pretty sight, and for many who love their drink, it becomes important to find out how one can deal with this condition, albeit self-inflicted. To do so effectively, you would have to understand the functioning of the body as far as the intake and metabolism of alcohol is concerned. Follow the steps below to enable you cope better whenever you have a hangover.

Manage the Dehydration

Alcohol is manufactured in such a way that its constituents make it a diuretic, which is a substance that causes an increase in the frequency of urination. This is what causes the feeling of drying up after one has imbibed their favorite drink. The first thing to do even prior to knowing how to deal with a hangover is to take adequate amounts of water. This will go a long way in helping get rid of the dehydration that characterizes hangovers. Do this before sleeping and once more in the morning (or when you wake up). Is this all there is to dealing with a hangover? The good news is that there is much more you can do if you want to deal with a hangover, the bad news is that there really is no cure for a hangover.

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What About My Stomach Ache?

Why do some people get a stomach ache whenever they have a hangover? This is because of the impurities that are included during the processing of alcoholic drinks. The concentration of these impurities will differ from one brand to the other, but has been shown to be very high in drinks that are malt-based. The other benefit of drinking enough water comes in at this point. The water will aid in the dilution of impurities following metabolism of the alcohol within the body in addition to facilitating the re-hydration of the individual. Another way to deal with a hangover as far as these impurities are concerned is to make toast a portion of your meals following a drinking session.

Have You Tried Eating Toast?

The purpose of using the toast, which is basically charred bread is that it acts as a filter thus effectively eliminating the impurities within the body. In severe cases of alcohol poisoning, one of the measures that doctors take up is the use of Carbon channeled to the patient’s digestive system. Some people will advocate for the use of fatty foods under the guise that this creates an oily lining on the digestive system so that the alcohol is not absorbed readily from the digestive system. Whether this is true or not, it is important to take food prior to drinking as this acts as a buffer zone so that the electrolytes are replaced frequently thus preventing dehydration. These are tips that will help you deal with a hangover and feel much better.

What If My Friend is Unconscious?

Have you ever worried about a friend who has had too much to drink and has fallen unconscious? First aid training teaches individuals how to manage semi-conscious and unconscious victims. Learn what position to place the victim and how to manage vomiting victims by enrolling in a first aid course near you. An unconscious and vomiting victim can be fatal. Learn to prevent an serious incident by taking a course.

Being prepared in an emergency is a key part of any first aid course. However, being preprepared can be confusing. Here’s our top 9 list of things you need for first aid and why.

A Watch:

In order to take a proper pulse, you must have a watch with a second hand and you must take the pulse for at least 15 seconds, if you don’t take the pulse for this minimum amount of time then you may not catch a very slow beating heart.


Your personal protection is very important and thus you should always carry a pair of gloves.  Ideally you would want latex free gloves as there is a growing population of people that are allergic to latex.

Gloves and First Aid

Wearing gloves is an essential component of providing first aid and / or CPR care as it prevents the rescuer or victim from transferring any blood borne pathogens.

Face Mask:

A disposable face mask is cheap and will allow you to give breaths while doing CPR and still protect you from any potential diseases that the patient may have.  The face must be disposed of after use or sterilized appropriately.

A Marker:

Need to quickly write down the patients allergies and medication?  Use a decent marker, you will be able to write on virtually any surface, even the patient, and they are very easy to obtain and carry on you.

Tensor Bandages:

Chances are that you will see sprains more often than any other injury as a first aider an a tensor bandage offers the perfect solution for this.  They are small and portable and can be used for a variety of tasks.

Triangle Bandage:

These are amazing tools and can be used to help splint, tie things down, and in emergency situations to tourniquet but only in extreme situations do you want to tourniquet someone like a femoral bleed or when medical help is hours away.


These are amazing tools but you must be careful when using them.  Think of these as scissors on steroids so use them carefully and appropriately.  That being said, they can cut through coins and pretty much anything else so they are great for cutting off patients apparel when you need to attach an AED.  USE THESE CAREFULLY as they can be very dangerous tools.

Alcohol Wipes:

These are a luxury item and you should only really be bringing them if you have the extra room and if you have the resources to maintain them as they do expire and should be replaced frequently.

Distilled Water:

This is not your average water bottle purchased at your local convenient store because it is necessary for you and the patient that the water has been distilled so that it won’t react with anything in the environment.

Carry these with you and be prepared for many of the first aid situations that you will encounter.

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Standard First Aid Kit for Cancer Patients: Non-prescription Items

February 21st, 2014 | Posted by finzy in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Standard First Aid Kit for Cancer Patients: Non-prescription Items)

Aside from sterile gauze and bandages, the standard first aid kit for cancer patients should include other items which can help guardians or caregivers manage the other adverse effects of the disease or the treatments. Here are some of the non-prescription items that should be included in the first aid kits for cancer patients.

Water Purification Tablets

Temperature monitoring is vital for fever

Temperature monitoring is vital when a person has fever.

These tablets can come in handy during situations wherein a bottle of purified drinking water is not available due to many mitigating circumstances. One of the well-documented side effects of chemotherapy is the increased susceptibility of cancer patients to infections, may it be internal or external. External infections can be avoided through proper wound dressing and hygiene while internal infections can be prevented by avoiding contaminated food and water. Cancer can also weaken the immune system which means that these tablets are still a must for patients who are not going through chemotherapy.

Laxatives and Oral Rehydration Solution Packets

Two of the other, more common side effects of chemotherapy are diarrhea and constipation. During the course of the therapy or the illness itself, patients may experience bouts of diarrhea for a couple of weeks and then suffer from bouts of constipation afterwards. These conditions can inhibit them from enjoying many outdoor activities or accomplishing simple daily chores or tasks. By having laxatives and oral rehydration solutions at hand, these conditions can be managed. Having oral rehydration solutions also ensures that electrolyte imbalance, a condition where in there is an imbalance in the important minerals inside the body, can be managed.

Hand Wipes

Alcohol and other types of disinfectants cannot be used to clean the hands or other parts of the body of cancer patients on a regular basis due to their dry skin. The alcohol content of these items are too high for cancer patients which can worsen their dry skin or cause other skin problems such as skin irritations and chaffing. This is why it is much better for cancer patients to use hydrating wipes or those that are infused with moisturizers especially during emergency situations. These wipes can also be used to clean the items or surfaces that patients might come in contact with which can be the source of infection.


Fever is one of the most common symptoms of infection which may go unnoticed especially if the patient is not exhibit other, more visible symptoms such as skin reddening or discomfort. By having a thermometer on standby, first aid rescuers, caregivers or guardians can regularly check the temperature of patients in order to detect the presence of a fever or even hypothermia.

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Backpack safety

February 11th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Backpack safety)

Backpacks have been a popular and practical way to carry items especially for children and even adults. They were specifically designed to distribute the weight on the strongest muscles in the body. If a backpack is used properly, it is a good way to carry items. The basics on backpack safety is essential for parents with children using one as well as the adults.

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How to properly use backpacks

Backpacks that are overly heavy or used inappropriately can lead to problems especially for both children and adults. Improper use of backpacks can damage the joints and muscles. Understandably, it can result to severe neck, back and shoulder discomfort as well as problems with the posture.

It is a common belief that heavy backpacks are linked to scoliosis, but in reality, they do not cause the condition. Take note that scoliosis is the sideway curve of the spine that manifests in children during the stage of puberty.

Selecting the right backpack to use

Once you decide to purchase a backpack for your child, it is important to choose one that is appropriately sized for your child. Additionally, features to watch out for include:

  • Two shoulder straps that are wide and properly padded
  • Waist straps
  • Padded back
  • Backpack made out of lightweight material
  • Rolling backpack

How to prevent injuries when using backpacks

When backpacks are not used properly or hold a heavy load, it can lead to injuries. It is vital to prevent any possible injuries by following certain guidelines when using a backpack for both children and adults.

backpack safety

Back pain due to excessive load on backpacks.

  • Both shoulder straps of the backpack should be used in order to distribute the weight equally over the back. Do not use only one strap especially when the backpack is heavy.
  • The straps should be tightened in order to keep the load close to the back.
  • The items that are placed in the backpack should be properly organized by packing the heavier items low and close to the center.
  • Always pack light especially for children. Avoid carrying loads more than 15-20% of their body weight.
  • Lift the backpack properly by bending using the knees when picking the backpack.
  • Take away items that are too heavy or simply carry those that are needed if possible. Just leave those that are not needed at school or home.
  • Build up muscle strength through exercises.

Useful tips for parents

When children are using backpacks, there are useful tips that parents should be familiar with.

  • Observe how your child puts on or takes off the backpack if it requires effort. In case the backpack is too heavy for your child, remove some of the items and instruct to carry them to minimize the load on the back.
  • Ask your child if there is tingling, numbness or discomfort in the legs or arms. This usually indicates improper fit or the weight is too heavy.
  • If your child complains about pain when using a backpack, consult a doctor right away.

Backpacks are very useful either at school or for work. Just make sure that backpacks are properly used and avoid carrying a lot of weight for extended periods since it can lead to problems in the long run.

The Requirements for a Standard First Aid Box

January 23rd, 2014 | Posted by finzy in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on The Requirements for a Standard First Aid Box)

Having a standard first aid box is a requirement for many offices and workplace environment especially for those that belong in more hazardous industries such as mills and machine shops. Homeowners are also advised to have one in their residence in order to serve as a safety net in case of domestic emergencies such as house fires. However, the efficiency of a first aid box does not lie on its presence alone. To ensure that it saves the lives of people, these boxes should possess several characteristics which shoppers should look for before buying one. Here are some of these characteristics.

It should contain all the necessary materials

Aside from bandages and scissors, it should also contain other first aid materials such as rolls of plaster, cotton and string; antiseptics such as Povidone; over-the-counter pain medications; splints; a hand towel and soap. To lessen the expenses, buyers are better off purchasing boxes that are already pre-packed with most, if not all, of these items. A first-aid booklet can also be added to ensure that the items that are inside the kit or box are properly utilized during emergencies.

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It should be compliant with government standards

The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have a specified set of requirements that all employers should comply with when it comes to first aid kits. For starters, OSHA highly advises a company or an employer to delegate the task of choosing first aid kit supplies to a specific person who is knowledgeable in the area. For small business, OSHA advises business owners to buy a kit that has the items that are prescribed by the American National Standards Institute in their Minimum Requirements for Workplace First Aid Kits manual. Included in the manual are the list of items that homeowners are advised to own.

The items should not be expired

Gauze Package for First Aid

Gauze Package for First Aid

Aside from antiseptics and medications, items that are wrapped in sterile packages such as bandages and plasters also have expiration dates that should be checked regularly. Expired medical items such s antiseptics lose their efficiency after the expiration date. Sterile packages lose their 100% bacteria-free state once it reaches the expiration date.

The easiest way to learn about these requirements and items is to sign up for a first aid course. In this course, employers, employees and homeowners are given lectures regarding the items that can be found inside standard first aid kits. They are taught how to use these items and how to store them properly.

Care of Individuals with Cough

November 20th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared | First Aid and CPR - (Comments Off on Care of Individuals with Cough)

Although coughing is a reflex that protects the lungs and the entire respiratory system from the accumulation of secretions or the inhalation of foreign bodies, it can also be a symptom of disorders of the pulmonary system or it can be suppressed in other disorders. The cough reflex may be impaired by weakness or paralysis of the respiratory muscles, prolonged inactivity, the presence of a foreign object such as a nasogastric tube, or depressed function of the medullary centers of the brain.

Care of Individuals with Cough

Care of Individuals with Cough

Coughing results from irritation of the mucous membranes anywhere in the respiratory tract. The stimulus that produces a cough may arise from an infectious process or from an airborne irritant such as smoke, smog, dust or gas. A persistent and frequent cough can be exhausting and can cause debilitating pain and discomfort. Cough, in general may indicate a serious pulmonary disease, although it may be caused by a variety of other problems as well including cardiac disease, medications, chronic smoking and gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

Clinical Significance of Cough

To help determine the cause of the cough, the health professional such as the nurse should be able to effectively assess the description of the kind of cough the individual may be experiencing. The nurse should be able to describe the cough whether is dry, hacking, brassy, wheezing, loose, persistent or severe. A dry, irritating cough is characteristic of an upper respiratory tract infection that would suggest a viral cause of origin, or it may be a side effect of a special kind of medication. Tracheal lesions produce a brassy cough. A severe or constantly changing cough may indicate malignant tumor growth along the tracheal lining. Pleuritic chest pain that accompanies coughing may indicate pleural or chest wall involvement of the musculoskeletal system.

Other Serious Medical Conditions Associated with Coughing

Persistent cough at night may herald symptoms of a possible left-sided heart failure or bronchial asthma. A cough in the morning with sputum production may indicate bronchitis. A cough that worsens when the patient is lying supine may also suggest post nasal drip (sinusitis). Coughing after food intake may indicate aspiration of food material into the tracheobronchial tree. A cough of recent onset is usually indicative of an acute respiratory infection which can be either viral or bacterial in nature.

A persistent cough can adversely affect an individual’s quality of life and may produce embarrassment, exhaustion, inability to sleep and discomfort. The effect of chronic cough on the patient and the patient’s view regarding the significance of the coughing episode especially the accompanying effects can be better appreciated during an intensive assessment of the individual’s health history.

Relief Measures for Coughing

Cough suppressants must be used in moderation and caution because they may relieve cough but do not address the primary cause of the cough. If used inappropriately, they may prevent the patient from clearing mucus from the airways and result in a delay in seeking indicated health care. If the cause of the cough has been properly diagnosed and addressed, it is only then coughing suppressants may be prescribed. If the cough is a result of irritation from smoke, pollution, and other air irritants strategies that limit exposure to the environment is encouraged.


Convulsions in Children

August 12th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared - (0 Comments)

Convulsions in children can be terrifying for parents, especially if there is no history of convulsion. A convulsion is also called a seizure or “fit.” A convulsion is a period of involuntary muscular contraction.Frightening as it may seem, it does not usually cause life-threatening situations or long-term consequences. They are not generally fatal. Febrile convulsions occur in an estimated 4% of all children between six months and five years of age, generally at ages younger than three. More than half of these children will only experience one convulsion in their lifetime. It is more common in young boys than girls and can run in families,

Convulsions in children, similar to those of adults, are caused by a sudden, abnormal electrical activity in the brain. The temporary disturbance of normal brain function causes a burst of abnormal electrical activity in one part of the brain and can spread to the other parts of the brain. When it reaches the cerebral cortex, more brain tissue activates and seizes resulting to abnormal activity. Repeated seizures are characteristic of epilepsy.

The contents of this article should not be used as substitute for medical advice. Enrol in first aid training and CPR courses to learn more about convulsions in children and other emergencies that children may have.

Causes of Convulsions in Children

It may be difficult to diagnose the exact cause of the seizure as it generally lasts from 30 seconds to a few minutes. However, some of the common causes are the following:

  • Epilepsy
    • Recurring convulsions
    • Febrile convulsions
      • Convulsion is due to high-grade fever/ infection
      • Especially common in children between nine months and five years of age, affecting mostly toddlers
      • Caused by flu or other infections in the body
      • Hypoglycemia
        • Low sugar levels in the body
        • Hypoxia
          • Reduced oxygen content in a particular region of the body
          • Hypotension
            • Low blood pressure
            • Electrolyte imbalance
            • Other uncommon causes in children:
              • Cerebral tumor
              • Drug overdose
              • Cardiac arrhythmias
              • Idiopathic or cryptogenic: of no identified cause

Symptoms of Convulsions in Children

Although it may be quiet obvious when a child is having a convulsion, some of the characteristics of seizures include:

  • Sudden tightening of muscles on both sides of the body
  • Muscle twitching and jerking
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Tongue biting
  • High-grade fever
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Foaming of the mouth
  • Child may be moaning or crying
  • Unresponsive
  • Unconsciousness
  • Post-seizure:
    • Lethargy
    • Confusion
    • Profound sleep

First Aid Management for Convulsions in Children

When a child starts convulsing, the main goal of first aid is to protect the child from any injury.

Hands behind the head when a person is having a seizure

Keep your hands behind the head when a child is having convulsions to prevent head injury.

  • If the child is standing, lay the child on a safe area. Make sure that the area is clear of sharp objects and other furniture that he/ she may hit.
  • Place a cushion or a jacket on the child head.
  • Loosen any tight clothing, especially those surrounding the neck.
  • Do not put anything in the child’s mouth as it may cause damage to the tongue and gums.
  • If the child begins to vomit, assist the child to his/ her side and clear the mouth.

Do not attempt to restrict movement as it may just lead to more harm to a convulsing child.

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?

July 23rd, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared - (0 Comments)

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?

The summer is expected to get even hotter. Read on to learn more about how to prepare yourself for the heat wave.

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?The scorching weather that swept many parts of Canada in recent days is here to stay, that’s according to Environment Canada. While people who are enjoying the beach are finding some relief from the heat, those who are living in inland provinces are advised to prepare for the worst.

Climatologists are surprised for the heat wave that struck many parts of Canada at the beginning of July. It is a rare phenomenon that experts are now warning people to prepare for an unusually hot summer.

Like any other climate disturbance, extended heat waves can be dangerous, even lifethreatening, to high risk populations that include young children, elderly, people with chronic illnesses, and those weigh beyond the scales.

Here are some tips to help you prepare:

• Know how to recognize and treat heat emergencies (heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke).
• Make sure that the air-conditioning (AC) system is working well. It recommended to be checked before the summer season.
• If your house does not have AC system, consider having it installed. If not, be sure to have one or more fans on standby to help cool down your body.
• Weather-strip sills and doors to allow more cool air in.
• Put up shades over windows that receive sunlight.

In case of extreme heat:
• Stay indoors and avoid performing strenuous physical activities outdoors.
• Listen to warnings about extreme heat from your local authorities.
• When at home, stay on the lowest floor and away from the sun, usually the coolest spot in the house. If your house is also hot, stay in a cool place (such as a shopping mall, library, community center) especially at the height of the day.
• Increase fluid intake to keep your body hydrated and help you cool down. Avoid alcoholic beverages and caffeine as they can cause dehydration.
• Eat small, frequent meals. Do not take on too much heavy foods or excessive protein.
• Wear light, loose clothing; avoid layers of clothing.
• Take frequent baths or cool showers.
• Never leave young children in closed vehicles even for short periods. Temperatures within the car can shoot up to a dangerous level within just a few minutes.


As we age, the body gradually finds it difficult to adjust to sudden changes in temperature making older adults at risk for heat emergencies during heat waves. Moreover, there are many chronic medical conditions and medications that can affect the body’s normal responses to heat. Make sure to check on elderly family members and relatives in case of extreme heat.


While animals can adapt to changes in environment, they may not be
able to achieve adequate coping mechanisms because of limitations in their environment. Make sure that your pets have plenty of water and access to cooler environments. Never over-exert your pets outdoors during the peak of the day, especially for pets with thick fur or older pets. Like humans, animals can also suffer from heat exhaustion and heat stroke.


Layrngitis can cause difficulty breathing and irritation

Laryngitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of a human’s voice box; larynx resulting from overuse, infection or irritation. It is characterized by hoarse voice and sometimes causes temporary complete loss of the voice as a result of irritation to the vocal folds.


Laryngitis causes are classified as either acute or chronic.  Acute laryngitis is  generally caused by cold or flu as a result of viral infection, inflammation due to overuse of vocal cords especially in shouting, singing or speaking, constant coughing, throat clearing and throat injury. Moreover, it is chronically caused by any allergic reaction from dust, toxins, chemicals or fumes, extreme consumption of alcohol, smoking or as a result of disease affecting esophagus.

Signs and symptoms

The common symptoms of laryngitis include weak voice and often one can lose the voice completely, hoarseness of voice where it may sound rough, be deeper than ordinary, or break frequently. Others include dry and sore throat, coughing and trouble when swallowing.

Risk factors

The risk factor for laryngitis are overusing ones voice by either shouting, too much singing loudly or speaking at the top of one’s voice, coming into contact with irritating substances like cigarette smoke, chemicals at workplace, stomach acid and excessive consumption of alcohol. Others include respiratory infections for instance, sinusitis, cold and bronchitis.

When to seek medical attention

At times, during the infection, one is likely to contract a secondary bacterial infection which becomes one of the major complications of laryngitis. However in little children, swellings in the larynx arising from irritation make both inhalation and exhalation hard and noisy. In such a case, urgent medical attention is recommended.


Laryngitis cases more often than not get better within a period of one week or thereabout. Meanwhile, to aid in relieving a patient’s symptoms, the following measures should be practiced: taking enough fluids, stopping both smoking and taking of alcohol until the condition improves, resting one’s voice and speaking normally yet avoiding whispering as this would strain the voice. Laryngitis being a viral infection does not require an antibiotic unless in case of a bacterial infection, where the general practitioner would prescribe the right antibiotic to use. In addition, he would advise on appropriate treatment in cases of related illnesses like pneumonia and bronchitis.


Prevention method is unclear because it usually occurs during cold or other related infections. Nonetheless, constant practice of beneficial lifestyle changes can help prevent the infection. These are: maintaining high levels of personal hygiene, avoiding clearing of voice as this is likely to cause an unusual vibration of one’s vocal cords; distancing from any kind of irritants like smokes, and limiting alcohol intake including caffeine.

In conclusion, laryngitis infection affects both young and old. It can either be acute or chronic and lasts for a week then clears on its own. Antibiotics apply only in bacterial infection on prescription by a doctor. It remains necessary to practice good lifestyle changes in case one contracts laryngitis.

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Survival In The Wilderness

June 11th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared - (0 Comments)

Wilderness Survival Tips : How to Make Fire

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You find yourself in the midst of a forest – injured, stranded and alone. Nighttime starts to fall, conditions are becoming unfavorable, and you can do nothing but wait for the following day or longer. Will you survive in the wild? Your chances of surviving are greatly improved if you have these life-saving items and know how to use them.

Keep yourself warm and dry

Hypothermia or low body temperature can quickly kill you. The body needs to maintain its temperature within the normal range or else many cellular functions may be adversely affected. Heat loss is much faster if you are wet and the wind is blowing. Therefore, it is important to keep yourself dry. Heavy-duty garbage bags or space blankets are a good protection against the elements. These supplies are lightweight and are very easy to carry. Choose high-capacity versions, with thicker materials and bright colors. These surfaces would not only keep you warm and dry; they can also help make you more visible from rescuers. Emergency first aid will be very useful with this kind of situation.

Learn how to make a fire

Fire is essential, as it serves many functions: source of warmth, safety against wild creatures, and as a potential rescue signal. Make sure to carry emergency fire starts such as matches that are waterproof. You can also find “metal match” which can produce long-lived sparks when struck with a metal scraper. These sparks can effectively ignite a flame. Other common household fire starters, such as butane lighters, may not be suited for outdoor use. Operating them on cold, wooden hands are rather difficult.

Know basic first aid

Before heading out to the wild, you should consider taking a basic first course.

Basic First Aid Training

Basic First Aid Training

There are many accidents that can occur while you are in remote areas. In case this happens, emergency medical services may not reach you immediately. Therefore, you should know how to provide for emergency care. Take a time to learn standard first aid before going to an adventure in the wilderness for emergencies.

There are special first aid certification programs designed for remote or wilderness areas. Usually, these are two-day practical courses that are intended for anyone who spends much time in the remote geographical locations more than one hour from standard medical care. This certification course will equip you with skills on how to treat emergency situations using available supplies and materials. Outdoor enthusiasts, avid mountaineers, climbers, forestry workers, hill farmers, and anyone who love wild places should learn the first aid skills. If you are interested at learning these specialty first aid skills, you can contact your local workplace approved chapter or any first aid training institution near you for available schedules.

Help rescuers locate you

Make sure somebody knows where you’re going and the estimated duration of your trip, or else, it will take more days before rescuers start looking for you. Carry signaling devices such as a whistle so that you can alert rescuers of your location and situation. These signaling devices can be used to communicate distress signal even from afar. If possible stay in a safe place where rescuers can easily find you.