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How to deal with a hip flexor strain

July 8th, 2016 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on How to deal with a hip flexor strain)
Hip flexor strain

A hip flexor strain is an injury that involves tearing of one or more hip flexor muscles and causes pain or discomfort in the anterior aspect of the hip or groin. A hip flexor strain is usually caused by the iliopsoas muscles which are found in the lower back and pelvis and moves into the thigh bone or femur. This muscle allows forward movement when running and walking. When kicking or sprinting, there is significant strain on the hip flexor which results to a hip flexor strain which involves tearing or stretching of the tendon or muscles.

Classification of a hip flexor strain

  • Grade 1 tear – small amount of fibers are torn with some pain yet full functionality is maintained
  • Grade 2 tear – significant number of fibers are torn and there is moderate loss of function
  • Grade 3 tear – rupture of all muscle fibers that result to major loss of function.

Causes

Hip flexor strain

A sudden sharp pain or pulling sensation felt in the front of the hip or groin after the injury.

  • A hip flexor strain can be caused by sudden contraction of the hip flexor muscles especially in the stretch position.
  • Performing sprinting or kicking with sports such as football and soccer
  • Inadequate warm-up exercises

Symptoms

  • A sudden sharp pain or pulling sensation felt in the front of the hip or groin after the injury.
  • Muscle spasm and weakness
  • Difficulty in walking with an evident limp
  • Pain when lifting the knee up to the chest particularly when running, kicking or climbing stairs.
  • Pain in the affected area upon waking up in the morning.
  • Tenderness, swelling and bruising of the area
  • Sometimes, in a grade 3 tear, there is deformity of the affected area

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest especially the affected hip flexor muscles. Avoid performing activities that can strain on the hip flexor muscle.
  • Apply a cold compress the affected area. Wrap an ice pack using a piece of cloth or towel and apply on the injury for at least 30 minutes at a time every 3-4 hours until 2-3 days until the pain is minimized.
  • Massage the affected area using ice. Simply freeze a Styrofoam cup filled with water. Remove the top of the cup so that the ice is exposed and then rub over the painful area for a few minutes.
  • Apply heat on the affected area to relax the muscles. Apply moist heat such as a heating pad that is applied on the area for at least 15-20 minutes before starting gentle exercises.
  • Take the prescribed pain medications to lessen the pain and inflammation such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.

More Information & Disclaimer

The information posted on this page for muscular injuries is for learning purposes only. The best way to learn to manage, recognize and prevent these injuries is by taking a basic first aid and CPR course such as standard first aid. Standard first aid covers topics such as sprains, strains and muscular injuries. Register for a course near you today to learn more.

Golfer’s elbow

November 27th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on Golfer’s elbow)
giant-cell-arteritis

Golfer’s elbow is a condition which instigates soreness or pain which affects the tendons found in the forearm is connected to the bony lump on the interior of the elbow. The pain can spread to the forearm up to the wrist. Golfer’s elbow is somewhat similar to the tennis elbow which manifests on the exterior part of the affected elbow. People playing tennis who utilize the wrist repeatedly or clamp their fingers are likely to develop this condition.

Symptoms

  • Pain and tenderness felt on the inner side of the elbow that can spread on the inner side of the forearm and becomes worse during movement.
  • The elbow becomes stiff and there is pain when making a fist.
    Golfer's elbow

    Pain and tenderness felt on the inner side of the elbow that can spread on the inner side of the forearm and becomes worse during movement.

  • Weakness of the hands and wrist
  • Numbness and tingling sensations that spread out in one or more fingers and usually it is the ring and the little fingers.
  • Pain becomes worse when lifting weights, swinging a golf club, a pitch ball, picking something with the palm down, shaking hands, turning a doorknob and flexing the wrist.

Seek medical help immediately if the elbow is inflamed or warm, there is fever, an evident deformity of the elbow, incapable of bending the elbow and if a fracture is suspected.

Causes

  • Swinging or gripping of clubs that is done incorrectly or too much force can strain on the muscle and tendons.
  • Using a racket that is too small or heavy and performing excessive top spin can stress out the elbow.
  • Improper pitching procedure in playing softball or baseball and improper techniques in playing football. In addition, javelin throwing and archery can cause the development of golfer’s elbow.
  • Improper techniques in performing weight lifting such as curling the wrist when performing biceps exercises.
  • Performing activities that require repeated bending and straightening of elbows such as raking, hammering, painting and chopping woods can cause golfer’s elbow.

Treatment

  • Apply an ice pack or cold compress on the affected area at least 10-15 minutes every hour when the pain is very severe. After a few hours, reduce the application to 3-4 times every day.
  • Take plenty of rest especially the affected area in order to help in the healing.
  • Avoid performing activities that requires the use of the wrist in order to prevent the condition from getting worse.
  • After three days, apply a warm compress since this helps in stimulating the flow of blood. Use a heat retainer made of neoprene-type support for the elbow to help in retaining the heat of the body and also helps in supporting the muscles of the elbow by preventing straining.
  • Using a tennis elbow brace helps in preventing strain on the tendon. It is a simple strap which is wrapped around the forearm

Tips

  • Walk or jog for a few minutes and perform some gentle stretches in order to warm up the muscles before starting a game.
  • Avoid overusing the elbow at the first sign of an elbow pain and take a rest.
  • Use the right equipment for the sports that is being played.
  • Squeeze a tennis ball or use light weights in order to help the muscles absorb the energy of physical stress.

Snapping turtle bite

May 29th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on Snapping turtle bite)

Turtles are considered as hardy creatures and have been on earth for millions of years. Some of these turtles thrive in fresh water reservoirs or in the sea as well as species that live on land. The outer side of the body is comprised of the hard shell which protects them from predators and serves as a hiding place when they feel threatened or in danger.

Snapping turtles thrive in shallow bodies of water and when startled, they can attack and bite, similar to a snake. The bites can be vicious but are not poisonous. Take note that a snapping turtle will only bite when provoked or surprised.

An adult snapping turtle ranges in size from 9.5 inches to 15.5 inches with a color that is muddy brown with a bumpy shell. They have a visible tail and a triangle head. Snapping turtles have strong and sharp jaws, but they do not have teeth or fangs but capable of breaking the skin and sometimes cut human fingers and toes.

Snapping-turtle-bite

There is swelling and pain around the bite site and the area turns red and inflamed.

A close look on snapping turtle bites

  • The bite of a snapping turtle typically occurs on the fingers or the toes but sometimes they can bite an individual on the face if the turtle is held close to the face and mouth.
  • The bites of this turtle can be a small bruise or a large bite with skin that is torn along with blood oozing from the wound.
  • There is swelling and pain around the bite site and the area turns red and inflamed.
  • Bacterial infection can develop after a turtle bite. The germs may enter the wound while handling the turtle particularly salmonella which are found in the skin of the turtle and inside the mouth.
  • The individual can experience symptoms such as fever, headache, presence of pus and pain at the affected area.

Treatment of a snapping turtle bite

  • Keep the individual calm if he/she was bitten by a snapping turtle.
  • If the turtle is still attached to the body of the person, avoid pulling it off since it will cause further damage to the bite site. The turtle will eventually release its hold on the skin. The jaws of snapping turtles contract and difficult to remove once they are dead.
  • Avoid killing the snapping turtle that is still attached to body of the person.
  • First thing to do is clean the wound using a clean gauze or cloth and then rinse the affected area using water.
  • Check the bite site if it is superficial or deep
  • Clean the affected area with a disinfectant lotion and apply an antibacterial ointment over the area. Apply sterilized gauze and wrap the wound using a bandage.

After treating the bite site using home remedies, it is still best to seek medical help so that medications can be prescribed and even a tetanus shot can be recommended.

What is cauliflower ear?

March 25th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on What is cauliflower ear?)

Cauliflower ear is a deformed outer ear caused by blunt injury that leads to swelling, bump-like appearance that looks like a cauliflower. The deformity is common among high school and college players, professional wrestlers, boxers and those who playing martial arts. A blunt trauma to the ear causes buildup of blood or blood clots found between the skin and cartilage of the ear while the interruption of blood flow to the affected area can damage the tissues. This condition should be treated immediately and if left untreated, can cause permanent deformity. To learn to recognize and manage the symptoms of ear injuries including cauliflower ear, register in a first aid course with a credible provider near you.

Causes of cauliflower ear

  • It can be caused by direct trauma to the ear and repeated blows on the ear can cause hematoma which is a collection of blood found between the skin and cartilage in the ear and the skin separates from the cartilage.
  • Cauliflower ear can be caused by infection in the ear lobe such as ear piercing.
  • Cauliflower ear typically occurs among people playing contact sports such as boxing, wrestling, martial arts and rugby. A direct blow on the ear from other players and rubbing of heads when playing wrestling.
Cauliflower ear

Place a cold cloth, ice pack or cold cabbage leaves on the outer ear lobe to minimize the swelling for 10-15 minutes at a time at least 2-3 times a day.

Treatment and home remedies of cauliflower ears

  • Use a dry clean cloth and apply pressure directly on the outside part of the injured area. Cover the ear with the cloth and press the upper portion of the outer ear for 15-20 minutes. By applying pressure immediately after the injury, it will help in minimize internal bleeding and swelling of the tissue.
  • Heat 2-3 cloves of garlic until soft and let it cool. Smash the garlic and press it against the affected area of the ear lobe and cover the garlic with a small towel in the ear lobe and keep it pressed for 15-20 minutes. Use the other garlic clove, squeeze and save the juice. Store it at room temperature and rub a little juice on the upper ear lobe at least 1-2 times a day.
  • Place a cold cloth, ice pack or cold cabbage leaves on the outer ear lobe to minimize the swelling for 10-15 minutes at a time at least 2-3 times a day.
  • Apply arnica ointment over the affected area 3-4 times a day for one week. Arnica helps in healing and helpful in treating injuries from sports such as sprains, fractures and tears. In addition, it is also helpful in treating bruises.
  • Wrap tightly a bandage around the head and pressing the injured ear to the side of the head. This will keep the pressure on the ear and encourage healing. Before wrapping the head, apply either garlic juice or Arnica cream over the affected ear lobe. Place a cotton ball on each side of the ear lobe for cushioning inside the bandaging.
  • Avoid further injury to the outer ear by wearing an athletic head gear designed to protect of the ears. Repetitive trauma to the ear can cause permanent damage to the tissue, loss of hearing and vertigo.

Treating knee pain

October 3rd, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on Treating knee pain)

Knee pain is a common complaint that affects people of all ages. It can be a result of an injury, like a ligament that is torn and a ruptured ligament. Some medical conditions like arthritis, gout and some infections can also cause knee pain. Knee problems and some injuries occur during sports or recreational activities, home tasks as well as activities that are work related.

The knees are the largest joints of the body and there are two discs also known as menisci that separate the upper and the lower bones of the knee. The ligaments, tendons and the muscles function in connecting the femur which is the upper bone leg while tibia and fibula are the lower leg bones. The articular cartilage covers the bone surface present inside the knee joint which helps absorb shock and provide a smooth, gliding surface for the movement of the joints. It is best that you are prepared to manage this condition by enrolling in a first aid course today.

Symptoms of knee pain

  • There is instability and weakness
  • Swelling and stiffness
  • There is redness and warmth sensation when touched
  • A popping sound and crunching noise
  • Difficulty in straightening the knees
Knee pain

Knee problems and some injuries occur during sports or recreational activities, home tasks as well as activities that are work related.

Causes of knee pain

  • Tendons or fluid-filled sacs called bursa, ligaments that cover the knee joint can be affected by a knee injury and also the cartilage, ligaments and bones that form the joints can also be affected by injuries.
  • An injury of the anterior cruciate ligament which is the tearing of one of the four ligaments that function in connecting the shinbone to the thighbone. This injury is common in people who play soccer, basketball and other sports that require sudden change in directions.
  • A torn meniscus which is a tough and rubbery cartilage that function in absorbing shock between the shinbone and the thighbone. It will tear due to sudden twisting of the knee while bearing weight on it.
  • Some knee injuries can cause inflammation in the bursa which is the small sacs of fluid that function in cushioning the outside part of the knee joint so that the tendons and ligaments can glide smoothly over the joint.
  • Knee pain can also cause tendinitis which is the irritation and inflammation of one of the tendons which is a thick and fibrous tissue that is responsible in attaching muscles to the bones. People who are susceptible to these injuries are skiers, cyclist and people who play sports that require jumping.

Treatment and home remedies

  • Take a rest for a day or two from normal activities in order to reduce repetitive strain on the knee.
  • Apply some ice packs to minimize the pain and inflammation like a bag of frozen peas is best because it covers the whole knee for about 20 minutes.
  • Applying compression to help prevent the build-up of fluids to the damaged tissues and maintain knee alignment and stability.
  • For the swelling, elevate the injured leg on a pillow or sit in a reclining chair.

Overuse Injuries – What Are They And How Are They Treated And Prevented?

August 23rd, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in First Aid Injury Assessment | Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Overuse Injuries – What Are They And How Are They Treated And Prevented?)

Background to Overuse Injuries

From the term itself, overuse injuries mean that certain types of injuries are sustained from repetitive activities or actions. This is different from acute injuries that could happen because of an instant traumatic event. In contrast, overuse injuries are injuries that occur more subtly and develop over time. This means that the two basic types of injuries are acute and overuse.

With respect to overuse injuries, the kind of trauma received by a specific body part results from repetitive actions, but the most common sites of injury are the muscles, bones and tendons of the arms, wrists, ankles, legs and thighs.  Because of its repetitive action, overuse injuries are common among athletes engaged in various activities and contact sports.

What Is The Science Behind Overuse Injuries?

Physiologically speaking, the body has the tendency to adapt to tremendous physical stress. There are many benefits associated with this adaptation – exercise, for example, can make the muscles, ligaments, tendons, joints and bones more functional, more flexible and stronger. This adaptation happens because of the process known as ‘remodeling.” But remodeling does not only involve the build-up of tissues, because improper use of the body structures can result to tissue breakdown. Thus, there should be a clear balance between tissue break down and build-up, and if break down occurs more rapidly than build-up it results to damage, such as overuse injury and acute injury.

Overuse Injury can occur as a result of forcing the body to work more than it can handle, resulting in stress and imbalance.

Overuse Injury can occur as a result of forcing the body to work more than it can handle, resulting in stress and imbalance.

How Does Overuse Injury Occur?

Too much use of muscles, bones and other body structures for a prolonged period of time without proper training and condition can result to physical stress. If, for example, a person starts to play tennis for the first time, and he continues for several hours without proper conditioning and training, it can strain his muscles and end up in an overuse injury. This happens because that person is trying to stress his body, not allowing the muscles to fully recover from the stress. As beginners, it is very important to have basic knowledge about the sport and proper technique when executing movements.

How Can Overuse Injury Be Prevented?

Training and conditioning are keys to prevention. Overuse injuries can be prevented with proper use of muscles and execution of movements. It is important to give the body some time to recover after performing sports or other training programs and activities. Consulting the doctor or sports medicine provider could also help you have a well-laid training program.

Related Video On Overuse Injury:

Sources:

“Overuse Injuries.” Physioworks. Retrieved online on August 18, 2014 from http://physioworks.com.au/injuries-conditions-1/overuse-injuries

“Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries.” Retrieved online on August 18, 2014 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/fitness/in-depth/overuse-injury/art-20045875

 

First Aid for Head Injuries

February 13th, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on First Aid for Head Injuries)
how to dress head injuries

Dressing head injuries

Head injuries refer to any kind of trauma that leads to injury of the brain, skull or the scalp. The injury can either be minor or serious injuries that damage the brain or even cause death. The injury can be open or closed depending on whether there is penetration of the skull. Closed head injury is when there is no penetration, while an open injury occurs when the skull is broken because of the impact leading to the injury. Some of the major causes of head injuries include traffic accidents, physical assault or accidents at home or while playing games. In order to give effective first aid you first need to know the symptoms involved. Some of the signs may be experienced instantly while others may take time.

Symptoms of Head Injuries

  • Fracture of the skull
  • Swelling or bleeding of the skull
  • Pain in the spinal cord especially near the head
  • Concussions

By understanding the symptoms, you will be in a position to offer effective first aid. It is important to call for medical help if the victim shows the following symptoms.

  • Abnormal behavior
  • Stiff neck
  • Excessive vomiting
  • Lose of consciousness
  • Unable to move leg or arm or
  • Gets sleepy.

You can also apply the following first aid steps.

  • Call emergency service provider or 911.
  • If the person is having problems to breath, start rescue breathing if you know how to do it.
  • In case the victim is breathing well and the heart is beating normally, offer assistance as if there is a spinal injury. Ensure that the head and neck are stable by putting your hands on both sides of the victim’s head. Make sure that the head is aligned with the spine and do not allow any movement as you wait for emergency service provider to arrive.
  • Use the supplies in your first aid kit to stop any bleeding. Do this by placing a clean bandage or piece of cloth on the wound. Excess bleeding may soak the cloth, do not remove it, but put an additional cloth on it.
  • Some head injuries lead to the fracture of the skull. Therefore, ensure you do not apply any form of pressure on the bleeding area.
  • In case the victim is vomiting, you need to prevent chocking by ensuring that the body acts as one unit without any movement. This will also protect the spine that may also be injured in the process.
  • Place ice packs on every part that may be swollen.

First Aid for Snakebites: Signs, Symptoms

December 23rd, 2013 | Posted by vanfirstaid in First Aid Injury Assessment | Poisons - (Comments Off on First Aid for Snakebites: Signs, Symptoms)
first aid, snakebite

helping snake bite victim

Being bitten by a snake can be life threatening, but this is not always the case. Some snakes are not venomous, and hence most victims can survive the attack. However, it is important to know how to identify snakebites and the first aid steps to take when trying to help a bite victim.

Signs and Symptoms to Look Out for

Victims of snakebites need emergency medical help, especially in the case of poisonous snakes. How fast the victim receives help can mean the difference between life and death. Sometimes a snake may bite you when there is no one around to help. Whether a snake bites your or someone else, it is important to know how to identify this kind of attack. The main signs and symptoms to look out for are:

  • A pair of bit marks at the wound
  • Swelling and redness around the puncture wound
  • Serious pain around the wound
  • Blurred Vision
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Increased perspiration
  • Numb tingling on the face and limbs

How to Administer Snake Bite First Aid

It is imperative to dial 911 or call for an ambulance after a snake attack incident. The following is what one should do to help a snakebite victim as emergency help arrives.

  • Make sure not to panic. The victim should be moved away from the snake to prevent further attacks.
  • The activity level of the victim should be minimized. This will reduce the rate at which the venom spreads in the body.
  • The bite or wound must be placed lower below the level of the heart. This will also help to reduce circulation to the bite area.
  • If you are sure that the snake is not poisons, apply puncture wound first aid.
  • It is important to know what type of snake was behind the attack.  Hence, look at the color and shape of the snake so that you can give this information to medical personnel when they arrive.

There are certain things that could exacerbate the victim’s condition and hence you should avoid them. For instance, do not:

  • Suck out the venom with your mouth. Not only is this dangers to you but the bacterial in your mouth might infect the wound.
  • Take alcohol or a painkiller.
  • Apply ice on the wound.
  • Tie a tight bandage around or near the wound.
  • Try to catch or kill the snake if you are untrained on how to do so as this could put you in danger.

Keep in mind that is vital to help medical personnel know what kind of snake bit the victim. If possible, take a picture of the snake, as this will help the doctor to choose the right anti-venom. In case you live in an area where snakes are common, it is use to have a snakebite first aid kit around.

Preventing Medical Emergencies and Injuries

November 2nd, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in First Aid Injury Assessment | First Aid Programs - (Comments Off on Preventing Medical Emergencies and Injuries)
Preventing Medical Emergencies

Prevent medical emergencies such as severe choking by enrolling in first aid and CPR training programs.

Why wait for medical emergencies to happen, when you could prevent it? Read on and learn more about ways to prevent these unwanted events.

Every year, emergency departments across the U.S. provide care to around 120 million people. This means there are 222 emergency room visits every minute.

Emergency physicians, nurses and other health personnel treat a wide range of emergency situations, and medical emergencies account for a huge percentage of this number. For adults, chest pain and abdominal pain associated with different medical conditions are the most common reasons for ER visits; while for children, fever, cough and vomiting. Injury-related ER visits also account for a great number of

Although emergency departments provide lifesaving care 24/7, regardless of the patient’s capacity to pay, prevention remains top priority. Prevention is critical in reducing the number of ER visits. Aside from minimizing the risk of disabilities and preventing deaths, it helps reduce burden in the healthcare system.

Here are some important things to consider in preventing medical emergencies:

  • Getting yearly physical and diagnostic exams. Having a regular exercise and following a healthy diet.
  • Identifying risk for any life-threatening medical conditions. Follow your physician’s advice on how to manage or reduce these risks, such as quitting smoking or alcohol consumption.
  • Be sure to keep medicines out of children’s reach and stored in child-proof containers.
  • Lock all poisonous materials.
  • Installing safety devices in the home.
  • Drive safely. Make sure to always strap on seatbelts and children are on child-safety seats.
  • Never drive a vehicle under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Read prescription label to see if taking certain medications will impair your ability to drive or operate heavy equipment.

Be ready for Medical Emergencies

While you can prevent emergencies, some do happen despite preventive actions taken. It is important to know what to do during an emergency. The key to responding in emergencies is to remain calm and decide to act. Here are some things you can do to help prepare for possible emergencies.

  • Keep a list of emergency phone numbers near the phone. Include the local numbers for: nearest emergency department, fire, police, ambulance service, and family doctor.
  • Keep a well-stocked first-aid kit at home and in your vehicle. Regularly check your first aid kit for possible expired supplies.
  • If you have certain medical conditions, always wear medical identification device. Keep a list of your medications in your wallet. Also, list if you have allergies.
  • Have emergency contacts of family members in your wallet, usually behind the identification card.

Last and most importantly, take a first-aid class. This will provide you with the necessary knowledge and skills to handle various medical emergencies.

By having the right knowledge you can stay calm and make the right decisions in high stress situations, such as emergencies.

Aside from your local workplace approved chapter, you can also take first aid classes from accredited training providers. There are many accredited training providers that offer this course.

When the Bones are Dislocated, It is Time to Get MedicatedCarmel was in Spain for an official business trip when she dislocated her right thumb. She was alone in her hotel room when decided to take a bubble bath after a full day of meetings and sightseeing.  Her foot was already inside when she realized that she forgot her iPod so she quickly rushed to get it from her luggage. Her foot wet the marble floor or her bathroom but she didn’t mind it much. On her way back to the tub, she slipped and tried to save herself by landing on her right hand. This quickly turned into one of her most painful experiences. Although Carmel was relatively thin, the body weight caused her thumb to bend the wrong way, thus causing its dislocation.

When the bone has been forcibly moved from its normal position at the joint, a dislocation occurs. When the two ends of bones are displaced from their normal positions, the bones become dis or “apart” or location or “a place of settlement or activity,” hence there is a dislocation. A dislocated bone may lead to impairment of ligaments, nerves and blood vessels.

Dislocation usually results from falls, car accidents or collision during contact. The most common dislocation sites are the shoulders and elbows for adults and children, respectively. The larger joints of the body are more prone to dislocation. Nonetheless, the hand’s position makes the thumb susceptible to dislocation when it is bent the wrong way. Due to the dislocation, there will be a momentary dislocation and disable the action of the joint. Swelling and severe pain are some of the symptoms of dislocation.

If treated early, most dislocations will not lead to permanent damage. Therefore, medical attention must be called for immediately.  The victim should not be moved, especially if neck injury is suspected. Only move the victim if there is danger in the immediate surroundings. More so, dislocated bones should not be pushed back to its joint. Moving the bone may result to damaging the joint and its adjacent muscles, ligaments, nerves or blood vessels. Small nerve and blood vessels may be trapped and result to numb digits. Immobilize the injured area.

If one is trained to do so, sling and/ or splint the injury in its original location. Boards, rolled newspaper and numerous other materials may be used as splints. To minimize discomfort, splints may be padded. Slings may be used for arm or shoulder injuries. To reduce swelling and assist in relieving pain, apply ice

on the affected joint. This will control internal bleeding and accumulation of fluids in and surrounding area of the affected joint. Ice must not be directly applied to the skin and should be wrapped in a towel or other pieces of clothing. Check for breathing if injury is serious. If no breathing is observed, commence CPR. Raise the feet one foot. To reduce body heat loss, cover the patient with a blanket.

In most medical emergencies, first aid training and CPR may be applied. Especially athletes and those who work with them should be knowledgeable of proper treatment. workplace approved programs offer first aid training and CPR courses which are offered to the community.