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Elbow hyperextension injury

May 14th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Elbow hyperextension injury)

Elbow hyperextension injury happens when the elbow is bent beyond the normal range of movement and damages the bones, ligaments and other structures of the elbow. Injuries can be caused by performing strenuous exercises such as playing sports and falling with outstretched arm.

Symptoms of elbow hyperextension

  • Swelling of the affected area
  • Pain in the anterior area of the elbow
  • Severe pain when extending the arm
  • Numbness of the affected area
  • The biceps contracts and there is pain and difficulty to straighten the arm.
  • Pain when touching the elbow

    Elbow hyperextension injury

    Take plenty of rest. Avoid activities such as extending and flexing the elbows for fast healing of the condition. Avoid drinking alcohol to prevent swelling and delays the healing.

  • Stiffness of the elbow and arm
  • Loss of strength of the elbow and arm
  • Muscle spasms in the biceps when straightening the arm
  • The affected area is red and blotchy
  • Deformity of the elbow
  • Problems with blood circulation in the elbow and hand

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest. Avoid activities such as extending and flexing the elbows for fast healing of the condition. Avoid drinking alcohol to prevent swelling and delays the healing.
  • Icing the affected area to relieve of the swelling and the pain. Put few ice cubes in a plastic bag and wrap it in a towel before placing to the area for at least 10-20 minutes at a time every hour after the injury. Another alternative is using an ice pack is also good for the condition.
  • Compress the area using an ACE elastic bandage, wrapped around the injured elbow to prevent unnecessary movements and for fast healing. It also stops and relieve of the swelling and pain. Avoid wrapping it too tight to prevent problems with circulation. If the area under the wrap causes pain and numbness loosen the wrap.
  • Elbow brace to immobilize the elbow and prevent unnecessary movements and for proper healing of the affected area.
  • Pain medications to relieve of the pain and the swelling.
  • Elevate the elbow above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling. When lying down, place the elbow in couple of pillows to keep it elevated. When sitting down put the affected elbow in a sling.
  • When pain starts to subside and capable of moving the elbow, perform gentle rehabilitation exercises with the help of the physical therapist for fast healing, lessen the pain and restore range of movement of the affected elbow.

Tips

  • Maintain proper form when playing contact sports or performing strenuous physical activities with the help of a qualified coach or instructor.
  • Avoid heat for at least 3 days such as hot baths, saunas and hot pads while in the healing stage.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol prevent the risk of bleeding and worsen the condition and delays the healing.
  • Avoid massage for 3 days to prevent further irritations.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on elbow hyperextension injury is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the indications and how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Dealing with tibial stress fracture

May 7th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Dealing with tibial stress fracture)

A tibial stress fracture is a condition that is characterized by an incomplete break in the shin bone or tibia. During running, a compressive force or exertion that is placed on the tibia causes it to become squeezed, compacted or squashed. When these forces becomes repetitive and beyond the capacity of the bone, damage to the bone gradually happens.

Symptoms of a tibial stress fracture

  • Pain in the outer area of the lower third of the tibia
  • Severe pain that increases when performing activities and subsides with resting
  • Severe pain and difficulty with walking
  • Pain when applying pressure on the shin
  • Pain at night or with resting
  • Swelling

Causes

tibial stress fracture

Wrap frozen gel pack or an ice pack in a towel before placing to the area for at least 15-20 minutes to lessen the inflammation and the pain.

  • Muscles become fatigue due to prolonged running and result to stress to the bone and cause a fracture.
  • Excessive weight-bearing on the bone due to severe contraction of muscles especially in running.
  • Running on even surfaces such as grass or road and suddenly switching to uneven surfaces.
  • Repetitive impact or stress to the bone eventually will result to a fracture.
  • Bad posture of the foot
  • Excessive training
  • Poor biomechanics
  • Weakness, fatigue or stiffness in the muscles
  • Stiffness of the joint
  • Wearing ill-fitting footwear
  • Unequal length of the legs
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Obesity

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest at least for eight weeks. Avoid placing weight on the affected area to prevent further damage and delays the healing.
  • Wrap frozen gel pack or an ice pack in a towel before placing to the area for at least 15-20 minutes to lessen the inflammation and the pain.
  • Compress the affected area using an ACE bandage and wrap it around the affected tibia to lessen the swelling and the pain.
  • Elevate the area above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling and the pain. It also increases blood circulation in the area. Raise the leg in couple of pillows to keep it elevated.
  • Use prescribed crutches to prevent unnecessary movements and complete weight-bearing in the affected area.
  • Take the prescribed medications to lessen the pain and the inflammation.
  • Perform rehabilitation exercises with the help of the physical therapist for strength, flexibility, balance and restore range of movement of the affected area.

Tips

  • Make changes slowly when starting a new exercise routine. Avoid overworking the body to prevent tibial stress fracture.
  • Take calcium supplement for strong and healthy bones.
  • Wear shoes with proper support for the feet to prevent stress fracture.

Ankle fracture

April 9th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Ankle fracture)

An ankle fracture is a condition where one or more bones that make up the ankle joint are damaged or broken. This kind of fracture has varied severity ranging from a minor ankle fracture that won’t affect your ability to walk to the point where your ankle appears out of place and may get you unable to use the injured leg for months.

Because an ankle fracture can range from a small number of bones broken to several pieces, the instability of the ankle joint and the damages to the ligaments that surround it can vary.

Causes of an ankle fracture:

  • Twisting or rotating your ankle
  • Suffering from a fall
  • Tripping
  • An impact from a car accident

    Ankle fracture

    Inability to stand or put weight on the leg with the injured ankle.

There are several signs and symptoms that may appear if you have an ankle fracture, they include:

  • Severe ankle pain
  • Swelling and bruising
  • Inability to stand or put weight on the leg with the injured ankle
  • A deformity of the ankle

If you’ve suffered an ankle fracture, it is important that you get immediate medical attention and be diagnosed to prevent any more injury and to receive the proper treatment for your ankle fracture.

Your doctor will perform an x-ray to determine if and how many broken bones are present after the injury has occurred. The x-ray may also cover the entire leg to determine if not only the ankle was damaged after the cause of the injury.

Your doctor may also perform a stress test to determine the severity of the damage caused by the ankle fracture by applying pressure on the injured ankle then taking an x-ray test to determine if surgery is required.

A CT scan may also be performed to determine the damages the ankle fracture has caused; this type of diagnosis is useful in cases where the fracture extends to the ankle joint.

An MRI scan may also be performed to reveal bones and ligaments to check how much damage is done to them by the ankle fracture.

Surgery may not be required to treat the injury indicating that the broken bone is not or is just barely dislocated. To determine if surgery is needed, a stress test is needed as this will determine if the ankle is stable or not. There are different methods for treating an ankle fracture to let it heal naturally, such as applying a leg cast.

But if your ankle is deemed unstable, surgery will be needed to repair the ankle fracture. During surgery, the bone fragments will be adjusted and repositioned to their natural alignment and will be held by special screws and plates attached to the outer surface of the bone. There are also cases where a screw or a rod inside the bone may be used to keep the bone fragments together while they naturally heal.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on an ankle fracture is for learning purposes only. Learn properly manage this injury by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Overview on Colles’ wrist fracture

March 2nd, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Overview on Colles’ wrist fracture)

A Colles’ wrist fracture is a condition where the radius bone found in the forearm breaks. This condition causes abnormal bending of the wrist. It causes severe pain and difficulty holding or gripping anything due to swelling of the wrist. This condition is likely to occur among older people and children with fragile bones.

Symptoms of Colles’ wrist fracture

  • Severe wrist pain
  • Swelling and bruising of the area
  • Tingling and numbness sensation in the fingers
  • The extremity or fingers becomes pale

Causes and risk factors

  • Osteoporosis

    Colles’ wrist fracture

    Tingling and numbness sensation in the fingers.

  • Elderly people
  • Diminished muscle strength or lack agility and poor balance makes a person prone to falling.
  • Deficiency in calcium or vitamin D
  • Walking or performing activities on ice or snow that requires plenty of forward motion.

Treatment

  • Avoid moving the affected wrist after the injury. Wear a splint to prevent unnecessary movements and delays the healing. The splint should be as long as the forearm, wrist and the hand. A splint can be in the form of a ruler or a folded newspaper. Place the arm on the splint, leave it at the angle that it was bent. Wrap the lower arm and the wrist using an Ace bandage. A scarf or a bandana can also be used to wrap the affected area. Avoid wrapping it too tight to prevent problems with circulation and worsen the condition.
  • Apply ice compress on the affected wrist. Make ice compress by placing ice in plastic bag and wrap it in towel before placing to the area for at least 10 minutes at a time to lessen the swelling and the pain.
  • Use the given over-the-counter medication to lower the swelling and pain.
  • Consult a physical therapist for a rehabilitation regimen to reinforce the wrist, lessen the pain and restore range of movement.

Tips

  • Increase eating foods rich in calcium, dark and green leafy vegetables and low-fat dairy products.
  • Perform regular exercises to strengthen the muscles and bones such as jogging and weight lifting.
  • Wear a wrist guard when performing activities to prevent the risk of colles’ wrist fracture. It will also protect the wrist when falling.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on Colles’ wrist fracture is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the signs of the injury and how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

What is iliac crest pain?

March 1st, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on What is iliac crest pain?)

Iliac crest pain is damage or inflammation to the ilium which is the muscle around the hipbone to result to severe and sharp pain. The hipbone is composed of the ilium, ischium and the pubis. The iliac is attached to the largest muscle in the back or lattisimus dorsi, muscle in the hip or gluteus maximus and the abdominal muscles.

A direct blow to the body has the high risk of developing iliac crest contusion especially in people playing contact sports such as football and hockey. Accidents from biking and falling on the ground and placing strong force in the hip area can develop iliac crest contusion.

Causes of iliac crest pain

  • Trauma such as collisions or a fall can cause tenderness and pain in the lower back and the hips
  • Weak muscles in the abdomen and lower back
  • Overweight
  • Sacroiliac joint dysfunction
  • Apophyseal injury
  • Iliolumbar syndrome

    iliac crest pain

    Low back pain that spreads down the leg.

  • Piriformis syndrome
  • Gluteus medius pain

Symptoms

  • Low back pain that spreads down the leg
  • Severe muscle spasms on the buttocks
  • Pain when walking due to inflammation of the joints
  • Swelling, tenderness and bruising of the affected area
  • Bending and twisting causes severe pain

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest especially the affected area immediately after the injury to lessen straining the lower back or the hipbone.
  • Apply cold compress in the area in the form of an ice packs. Wrap the ice pack in a towel before placing in the area for at least 15 minutes, 3 times every day to lessen the pain and the inflammation.
  • Elevate the affected area above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling.
  • Apply warm compress in the area in the form of a warm pad to lessen constant pain in the back due to inflammation of the ligaments and muscles in the iliac crest. It also increases flow of blood in the area and for fast healing of the condition.
  • Perform gentle stretching of the muscle of the hip to restore the strength and prevent further damage. Stretch the hip flexors, hamstrings and quadriceps with the help of the physical therapist before starting an activity.
  • Provide an over-the-counter medications to reduce the inflammation and the pain.

Tips

  • Wear proper foot wear especially when playing sports or a runner.
  • Run on good quality tracks, avoid running uphill or downhill until totally healed.
  • Proper warming up of the muscles, joints and stretching to increase flow of blood in the area. Cooling down and stretching after performing any physical activities.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on iliac crest pain is for learning purposes only. Learn more about the causes and how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

How to treat collarbone dislocation

February 12th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on How to treat collarbone dislocation)

Collarbone dislocation is a condition where the collarbone or clavicle is separated from the joints. It is caused by a direct blow on the shoulder and result to severe pain. It damages the surrounding structures, injuries to the muscles and ligament tears. People playing contact sports, adventure sports, high impact sports and other activities involving falling have a high risk of developing this condition.

Symptoms of collarbone dislocation

  • Mild dislocation – mild injury to the ligaments with minimal collarbone dislocation
  • Moderate dislocation – complete tear on the ligaments and complete dislocation of the collarbone.
  • Severe dislocation – complete dislocation of the collarbone with severe symptoms

Causes

collarbone dislocation

Pain in the shoulder area and spread to the front area, chest, upper and middle back and to the arms and hands.

  • Trauma to the joint of the shoulder or the upper area of the body
  • Hitting hard on the shoulder or a direct blow or hit by a person
  • Falling on the ground
  • Falling due to loss of balance from a height
  • Vehicular accidents

Symptoms

  • Pain in the shoulder area and spread to the front area, chest, upper and middle back and to the arms and hands.
  • Swelling and bruising
  • Tender when touched
  • The area is bruised and bluish black in color when there is a direct blow to the shoulder
  • Inflammation
  • Difficulty with movement especially raising the arms
  • Overhead reaching causes pain
  • Weakness of the arms
  • Shortness of breath, choking sensation, and difficulty in talking and swallowing with movement of the chest and throat.

Treatment

  • Take the prescribed anti-inflammatory and muscle relaxants medications to reduce the swelling and the pain.
  • Adequate rest for the affected area. Avoid engaging in activities that involves the moving the shoulders, arms and chest. Avoid moving the injured joint for rapid healing of the condition.
  • Apply an ice pack on the affected area to alleviate the swelling, the inflammation and the pain. Put a few ice cubes in plastic bag.
  • Consult a physical therapist for rehabilitation exercises to reduce the swelling the pain and the discomforts of the affected collarbone. Perform exercises to strengthen the muscles, restore joint mobility and improve range of movement.

More Information

The details posted on this page on a collarbone dislocation is for learning purposes only. To learn how the injury is properly managed, enroll in a first aid course with one of our training providers.

Remedies for boxer’s fracture

December 11th, 2017 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Remedies for boxer’s fracture)

A boxer’s fracture is a break through the bones of hands that forms the knuckles. The fractures happen in the metacarpal bone that attaches the ring finger or the little finger to the wrist known as the fourth and the fifth metacarpal bones.

It can also cause a break in the neck of the second and third metacarpal bones. The second metacarpal bone attaches the index finger to the wrist, and the third metacarpal attaches the middle finger to the wrist.

Causes of boxer’s fracture

Punching a hard object or a wall with a closed fist but can also happen when the hand is not closed and strikes a hard object.

The stress on the bone will result to a break in the weakest part which is the neck of the bone, found below the knuckle.

boxers-fracture

Punching a hard object or a wall with a closed fist but can also happen when the hand is not closed and strikes a hard object.

Symptoms

  • Severe pain or tenderness of the affected area
  • Depressed knuckle
  • Pain with movement of the hand or fingers
  • Snapping or popping sensation can be felt in the affected bone
  • The hand swelling, discolored or bruise around the injured area
  • Deformity of the broken bone or the knuckle
  • Abnormal movement of the fragments of the broken bone
  • Sometimes, the fracture can cause a cut in the skin which needs immediate treatment

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest especially the affected area. Avoid performing activities that further irritates the area and worsen the condition.
  • Apply ice on the area. Ice can be in the form of an ice pack. Wrap ice in a towel or a piece of cloth before placing to the area for at least 10-15 minutes to lessen the swelling and the pain. If ice is not available, another alternative is soaking a clean towel in cold water, and then place to the affected area is good for the condition.
  • Elevate the area above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling. When lying down, raise the area in couple of pillows to keep it elevated.
  • Wash cuts in the affected area using soap and water immediately and cover it with clean bandage to lessen the risk of developing infections and worsen the condition.
  • Immobilize the area by using a splint to prevent unnecessary movement and prevent causing damage to surrounding muscles, tendons, blood vessels, ligaments and nerves. Keep splint dry all the time to maintain their strength.
  • Take the prescribed over-the-counter pain medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to lessen the pain and the swelling.

Tips

  • Avoid situations in which an injury can happen such as fist fights and punching a hard object due to anger or frustration to lessen the risk of a boxer’s fracture.
  • Performing regular exercises and taking calcium supplements to lessen the weakening of the bones that happens naturally due to age.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on a boxer’s fracture is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the indications and how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Remedies for retrolisthesis

July 31st, 2017 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Remedies for retrolisthesis)

Retrolisthesis is a rare medical condition usually happens in the lower area of the spine, but can also happen in the cervical area and rarely in the thoracic region. This condition happens when the disc found between the vertebrae is damaged.

Retrolisthesis happens when one vertebra slides and moves back throughout the intervertebral disc under or over it.

Types of retrolisthesis

retrolisthesis

Uneasiness in one area of the back.

  • Complete retrolisthesis, when a vertebra moves backward to the spinal segments above and below.
  • Partial retrolisthesis, when a vertebra moves backwards either to the spinal segment above or below.
  • Stair stepped retrolisthesis when a vertebra moves backwards to the body of spinal segment found above and ahead of the one found below.

Symptoms of retrolisthesis

  • Distortion of the spine or a bulge in the back
  • Uneasiness in one area of the back
  • Limited range of motion
  • Back pain
  • Other forms of pain in area of displacement
  • Numbness, tingling or a severe and pinched pain felt in the buttocks, hips, thigh, neck, shoulder, legs and arms.

Causes

  • Stress and traumatic fractures
  • Birth defects in children
  • Injury to the spine or around the spine
  • Arthritis, osteoporosis and rickets which makes the bones weak
  • Nutritional deficiencies of materials for maintenance of bone strength, and repair of disc, cartilage and nerves.
  • Weak core muscles that do not give stability on the back
  • Infections in the blood or bone

Treatment

  • Quit smoking to prevent further damage and deterioration of the joint.
  • If overweight, lose some weight to lessen the pressure placed on the vertebra and for fast healing of the condition.
  • Take prescribe vitamin supplement with manganese, copper, vitamin A, C and Zinc.
  • Using myofascial release with the help of the physical therapist. It is an applied kinesiology treatment that involves placing pressure on myofascial which result in restorative function. Myofascial release or massages restores the muscle tone and increase blood circulation in the area.
  • Using microcurrent therapy to lessen the pain and repair of the tissue. it utilizes low-level electric currents to lessen the inflammation, the swelling and the pain. It also releases muscle trigger points and improve regeneration of the soft tissue.
  • Apply a warm compress on the affected area for at least 10-15 minutes to lessen the pain.
  • Seek the help of the physical therapist for some proper techniques in lifting, bending and sitting. Exercises and physical therapy helps with losing weight and improve flexibility, mobility, strength and lessen the pain caused by the retrolisthesis.
  • Drink plenty of water. Water is a constituent of spinal disc cartilage and supports the height of the intervertebral disc.

 

Dealing with broken ribs

April 7th, 2017 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Dealing with broken ribs)

Broken ribs usually happen due to a direct blow to the chest or torso such as in vehicular accidents, falls and during contact sports. Conditions such as osteoarthritis and bone cancer can cause weakening of the ribs and other bones.

Symptoms of broken ribs

  • Pain when breathing
  • Mild to severe pain near the rib cage
  • Headaches and fatigue
  • Shortness of breath and feeling restless, dizzy, sleepy, anxious and scared.
  • Pain in the rib when coughing excessively due to conditions such as osteoarthritis or cancer.

    Broken rib

    Mild to severe pain near the rib cage is an indication of a broken rib.

Treatment

  • Avoid wrapping the rib cage.
  • Apply an ice pack on the affected area for at least 20 minutes every hour in the first 2 days and reduce it to 10-20 minutes at 3 times every day to lessen the swelling and pain. The cold temperature will constrict the blood vessels to lessen the inflammation and numbs the surrounding nerves. Avoid placing the pack directly on the skin to prevent further damage and worsen the condition.
  • After 48 hours, apply heat on the affected area to relieve the spasms of the intercostal muscles found between the ribs. Apply heat at least 30-minute intervals and let the muscles cool down for 30 minutes and reapply again. Avoid placing heat directly on the skin to prevent burns. Wrap heat using a towel or piece of cloth before placing to the area.
  • Take the prescribed over-the-counter non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, naproxen or aspirin to lessen the pain and inflammation.
  • Minimize performing cardio exercises to prevent an increase in the heart and breathing rates that can result to irritation and inflammation of the broken rib. Minimize twisting and lateral flexion of the torso while the rib is in the healing stage. Perform gentle exercises such as walking, driving and desk work.
  • When coughing or sneezing, hold a soft pillow against the chest to provide cushion to the blow and lessen the pain.
  • Sleep on the back or supine position to lessen the pressure on the chest. Another alternative is sleeping in an upright reclining chair for a few days until the inflammation and pain is minimized. Another option is placing pillows behind the back and at the back of the head while sleeping.
  • Eat well-balanced foods rich in minerals and vitamins. Consume whole grains, lean meats, dairy products and plenty of purified water. Take dietary supplements such as calcium, magnesium, vitamin D and K and phosphorus for fast healing of the broken rib.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on broken ribs is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize and manage rib injuries by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Managing a spinal cord injury

March 17th, 2017 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Managing a spinal cord injury)

The spinal cord injury is considered dangerous due to the vital function of the area. The injury happens when there is injury to the spinal cord due to trauma, compression due to a tumor or infection and loss of normal supply of blood. These injuries can be complete or incomplete.

In a complete injury, it involves total loss of function of the muscles and sensation in the body beneath the level of the injury. As for an incomplete injury, there is still remaining function below the level of the injury. Both sides of the body are usually affected equally.

Injury to the upper area of spinal cord such as in the neck can result to quadriplegia where both arms and legs becomes paralyzed. As for injury in the lower back, it can result to paraplegia which is paralysis of both legs only.

Symptoms of spinal cord injury

  • Paralysis and loss of sensation
  • Shallow or irregular breathing
  • Loss of urinary or bowel control
  • Pain or severe stinging sensations
  • Exaggerated reflex actions or spasms

    Spinal cord injury

    Pain or severe stinging sensations is an indication of a spinal cord injury.

Causes

  • Stabbing or gunshot wounds to the spine
  • Falling from heights
  • Injuries in sports such as in football, diving, equestrian and rugby
  • People suffering from spinal stenosis have a high risk of injury to the spinal cord

Treatment

  • Avoid moving the affected person. Keep the head, neck and back in proper alignment. Lay him/her on a flat surface and keep the person calm and still. Roll up towels and place them on side of the neck or hold the head and neck in place
  • If the person does not have a pulse, gently lift the jaw forward and perform chest compression.
  • A spinal injury in the upper neck area can result to loss of control in normal breathing and there is a need to use a breathing tube and ventilator. A breathing machine or mechanical ventilator helps with breathing and provides oxygen.
  • Wear a cervical collar or place the affected neck on a backboard to prevent unnecessary movements that can worsen the condition.
  • Take the prescribed dosage of steroid to lessen the swelling and inflammation.
  • Place the affected person in a traction or halo device placed around the head for stability of the spine and prevent further damage that can worsen the condition.
  • Some possible complications that can result from a spinal cord injury that needs to be treated immediately includes bowel incontinence or inability in controlling bowel movements, urinary tract infections or urinary incontinence, blood clots, pneumonia, chronic pain, pressure sores, depression and muscle spasms.
  • After the affected person is already stabilized, seek the help of a physical therapist for some rehabilitation exercises to restore normal mobility of the affected area through occupational and physical therapy and using assistive devices.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on a spinal cord injury is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize and manage head and back injuries by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.