Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Part if your role as a first aider is to communicate with others, particularly the

emergency services. First Aid Classes will give you the skills and knowledge required to give an appropriate handover of the right information in order to get the response you need from the service you require.

Many countries have a national number to dial for emergency services. The emergency services number for the Canada and the United States of America (US) is 911, the UK is 999, and the European Union (EU) is 112.

If possible, when you are a first aider at an incident, try to get help from others who may be able to make the area safe, telephone for help or get first aid equipment. St Mark James First Aid manual suggests that they may also be able to control traffic or onlookers, help control bleeding or support a limb, help maintain the patients privacy or assist in transporting the patient to a safe place if they are in danger where they were found.

Whilst they are doing all of this, you can be commencing essential first aid treatments, therefore acting quicker and hopefully getting a better outcome or response as the patient may be treated before they deteriorate too much.

However, remember that bystanders may not react as well as you hope, they may be in shock, or if they have no first aid training they could feel helpless or frightened. They could be distressed if they are witnessed of an incident, or could be a concerned relative or even involved in the incident themselves. If they have been involved be aware that they could also have injuries.

workplace approved Training recommends that you remember to stay calm in this situation, and ask others to help you in a firm but gentle manner. Be clear when giving instructions as they may not have the same level of understanding as you do.

If no one else is available, you may need to telephone for help yourself. You will need to state your name clearly and let them know that you are a first aider. The operator will firstly need your telephone number and the exact location of where you are. Try to give a road name or number, and be as specific as possible naming any junctions or nearby landmarks.

You can then give them further information on the incident itself. Give them any information you have on the patient(s); if possible include details on the number of patients, their sex, age or approximate ag

First Aid Classes

First Aid Classes

e, and anything you know about their condition or suspect. Also notify them of any potential hazards like gas, toxic substances, power-line damage, or even bad weather conditions like fog or ice.

Remember, as per workplace approved First Aid manual, always stay calm and try to keep a clear head in order to give the best treatment, organise helpers at the scene, and be able to give clear practical information to the emergency services operator or when handing over to the professionals when they arrive.


First Aid Manual (The Authorised Manual of St. John Ambulance, St Andrew’s Ambulance Association and the British workplace approved), 2006.

Bleeding Wounds

July 26th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in First Aid Programs - (0 Comments)

First Aid Classes – Severe Bleeding from Wounds

Some wounds bleed more than others however if bleeding is severe workplace approved Training explains it can be very distressing for both passers by and the patient. As a first aider your aim is to firstly control the bleeding.

It is well known that applying pressure can help to control bleeding, however you must first establish if there is anything embedded in the wound as the treatment will be slightly different.

The aims are the same for both wounds with embedded objects and wounds that are clear, however when trying to control the bleeding, you would do so without pressing the object further into the wound.

The aims stated in workplace approved First Aid manual for all patients with bleeding wounds are:

  • To control the bleeding
  • Prevent and minimise the effects of shock
  • Minimise risk of infection
  • Arrange urgent medical assistance

Firstly, you should put on disposable gloves if there are any available. This is to protect both yourself and the patient. If required, you should remove or cut any clothing away in order to expose the wound.

Bleeding WoundsAs previously stated, applying pressure over the wound will help to control the bleeding. For a wound with no object(s) embedded within it, do this using your fingers or palm, however it is best practice to do this over a sterile dressing or a non-fluffy (so it doesn’t stick or leave fluff in the wound) clean pad, or you could ask the patient to apply pressure themselves if they are able. Secure the wound with a dressing and bandage if available, ensuring it is applied tight in order to maintain compression, however check to ensure there is still adequate blood flow to the limb.

However, if there is an object in the wound, First Aid Classes state you must compress the wound on either side of the object, to push the wound edges together. The dressing for a wound with an embedded object is also different. The wound should not just be covered and pressure applied to it. Instead, you should use padding on either side of the object and then bandage over the object, taking care not to press it into the wound.

To help to reduce the bleeding you should also elevate the injured body part above the level of the chest, whilst continuing to maintain pressure. If available, you could support the injured body part in an elevated position using a sling or bandaging. This will also minimise the swelling and this will in turn help ease any pain.

If the bleeding is not controlled, the patient is at risk of developing shock. This is a severe condition and can be fatal if not treated. As a first aider you must try to prevent and minimise the effects of shock by elevating the patients legs above the level of their chest. Ideally, workplace approved Training suggests laying them down on a blanket, both for their comfort and to protect them from cold.

Continue to monitor the patient for signs of shock whilst waiting for medical assistance, as well as observing their responsiveness, pulse and breathing.  It is important not to allow the patient to eat, drink or smoke during this time, in case surgery is needed.

You should also check the bandage for further bleeding coming through; you may need to apply a second dressing on top of the first. If it continues to strike through, First Aid Classes say you should completely redress the wound, ensuring that accurate pressure is applied to the site of bleeding.


First Aid Manual (The Authorised Manual of St. John Ambulance, St Andrew’s Ambulance Association and the British workplace approved), 2006.

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?

July 23rd, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared - (0 Comments)

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?

The summer is expected to get even hotter. Read on to learn more about how to prepare yourself for the heat wave.

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?The scorching weather that swept many parts of Canada in recent days is here to stay, that’s according to Environment Canada. While people who are enjoying the beach are finding some relief from the heat, those who are living in inland provinces are advised to prepare for the worst.

Climatologists are surprised for the heat wave that struck many parts of Canada at the beginning of July. It is a rare phenomenon that experts are now warning people to prepare for an unusually hot summer.

Like any other climate disturbance, extended heat waves can be dangerous, even lifethreatening, to high risk populations that include young children, elderly, people with chronic illnesses, and those weigh beyond the scales.

Here are some tips to help you prepare:

• Know how to recognize and treat heat emergencies (heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke).
• Make sure that the air-conditioning (AC) system is working well. It recommended to be checked before the summer season.
• If your house does not have AC system, consider having it installed. If not, be sure to have one or more fans on standby to help cool down your body.
• Weather-strip sills and doors to allow more cool air in.
• Put up shades over windows that receive sunlight.

In case of extreme heat:
• Stay indoors and avoid performing strenuous physical activities outdoors.
• Listen to warnings about extreme heat from your local authorities.
• When at home, stay on the lowest floor and away from the sun, usually the coolest spot in the house. If your house is also hot, stay in a cool place (such as a shopping mall, library, community center) especially at the height of the day.
• Increase fluid intake to keep your body hydrated and help you cool down. Avoid alcoholic beverages and caffeine as they can cause dehydration.
• Eat small, frequent meals. Do not take on too much heavy foods or excessive protein.
• Wear light, loose clothing; avoid layers of clothing.
• Take frequent baths or cool showers.
• Never leave young children in closed vehicles even for short periods. Temperatures within the car can shoot up to a dangerous level within just a few minutes.


As we age, the body gradually finds it difficult to adjust to sudden changes in temperature making older adults at risk for heat emergencies during heat waves. Moreover, there are many chronic medical conditions and medications that can affect the body’s normal responses to heat. Make sure to check on elderly family members and relatives in case of extreme heat.


While animals can adapt to changes in environment, they may not be
able to achieve adequate coping mechanisms because of limitations in their environment. Make sure that your pets have plenty of water and access to cooler environments. Never over-exert your pets outdoors during the peak of the day, especially for pets with thick fur or older pets. Like humans, animals can also suffer from heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Lead Poisoning

July 5th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Poisons - (0 Comments)

Lead PoisoningThis is a medical condition that occurs in humans and other vertebrates when heavy metal lead builds up in the body over a period of months or years. This interferes with a variety of processes and affects vital organs in the body like kidneys, heart, reproductive and nervous systems. Lead poisoning is especially rampant in children under the age of six years where it can severely affect their physical and mental development but sometimes become fatal.

Lead as a natural metal, is commonly available and is used in construction materials. However, long term exposure to it can cause serious health complications especially to unborn and young children because it is toxic and their growing body makes them more susceptible to absorbing and retaining lead. Exposure to high amounts of lead in adults too may cause lead poisoning.

Signs and symptoms

Babies who get exposed to lead before birth usually experience slowed growth and learning difficulties whereas in young children symptoms of lead poisoning include: loss of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, vomiting, irritability, constipation, sluggishness and fatigue. In adults however, one with lead poisoning exhibits high blood pressure, pain, numbness, decline in mental functioning, headaches, muscular weakness, memory loss, abdominal pain, reduced sperm count,  in case of a pregnant woman, premature birth or miscarriage.

Contributing factors

Several factors have contributed to the increase in lead poisoning in different parts of the world. These include age. For instance, infants and young children stand the highest risk of exposure to lead poisoning through chewing paint chips and touching lead dust during play. Living in an older home increases the chances of lead poisoning too, and certain hobbies like refinishing of old furniture might put one into contact with lead and finally, most developing countries usually have less strict rules with regard to lead exposure.


When one wants to treat any degree of lead poisoning, it is prudent to first remove the source of the contamination. Remove the likelihood of it causing problems in case one cannot remove lead from the environment. A local health department can recommend ways of reducing lead in the community. Avoid exposure to lead especially in children. For severe cases, doctor may recommend. Besides, to help in protecting one and family from lead poisoning, apply the following simple measures: regular hand washing, cleaning of dusty surfaces, don’t attempt to remove the lead paint by sanding, don’t remove an open-flame torch to remove paint and covering an old paint by painting over an old lead paint as opposed to removing it.

It is important to note that exposure to even low levels of lead can cause damage over a given period of time more so in children. The greatest risk may be to the brain development where an irreversible damage may be caused by lead poisoning. Nonetheless, in both children and adults, lead poisoning can cause damage to the nervous system and the kidneys. Very high levels of lead are known to have caused unconsciousness, seizures and death. Simple protective measures mentioned above should be adhered to in curbing lead intoxication.

Related post:

Management of Seizures for First Aid Training


Layrngitis can cause difficulty breathing and irritation

Laryngitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of a human’s voice box; larynx resulting from overuse, infection or irritation. It is characterized by hoarse voice and sometimes causes temporary complete loss of the voice as a result of irritation to the vocal folds.


Laryngitis causes are classified as either acute or chronic.  Acute laryngitis is  generally caused by cold or flu as a result of viral infection, inflammation due to overuse of vocal cords especially in shouting, singing or speaking, constant coughing, throat clearing and throat injury. Moreover, it is chronically caused by any allergic reaction from dust, toxins, chemicals or fumes, extreme consumption of alcohol, smoking or as a result of disease affecting esophagus.

Signs and symptoms

The common symptoms of laryngitis include weak voice and often one can lose the voice completely, hoarseness of voice where it may sound rough, be deeper than ordinary, or break frequently. Others include dry and sore throat, coughing and trouble when swallowing.

Risk factors

The risk factor for laryngitis are overusing ones voice by either shouting, too much singing loudly or speaking at the top of one’s voice, coming into contact with irritating substances like cigarette smoke, chemicals at workplace, stomach acid and excessive consumption of alcohol. Others include respiratory infections for instance, sinusitis, cold and bronchitis.

When to seek medical attention

At times, during the infection, one is likely to contract a secondary bacterial infection which becomes one of the major complications of laryngitis. However in little children, swellings in the larynx arising from irritation make both inhalation and exhalation hard and noisy. In such a case, urgent medical attention is recommended.


Laryngitis cases more often than not get better within a period of one week or thereabout. Meanwhile, to aid in relieving a patient’s symptoms, the following measures should be practiced: taking enough fluids, stopping both smoking and taking of alcohol until the condition improves, resting one’s voice and speaking normally yet avoiding whispering as this would strain the voice. Laryngitis being a viral infection does not require an antibiotic unless in case of a bacterial infection, where the general practitioner would prescribe the right antibiotic to use. In addition, he would advise on appropriate treatment in cases of related illnesses like pneumonia and bronchitis.


Prevention method is unclear because it usually occurs during cold or other related infections. Nonetheless, constant practice of beneficial lifestyle changes can help prevent the infection. These are: maintaining high levels of personal hygiene, avoiding clearing of voice as this is likely to cause an unusual vibration of one’s vocal cords; distancing from any kind of irritants like smokes, and limiting alcohol intake including caffeine.

In conclusion, laryngitis infection affects both young and old. It can either be acute or chronic and lasts for a week then clears on its own. Antibiotics apply only in bacterial infection on prescription by a doctor. It remains necessary to practice good lifestyle changes in case one contracts laryngitis.

Articles you may want to read:

AED Training For Rescues

When the Bones are Dislocated, It is Time to Get MedicatedCarmel was in Spain for an official business trip when she dislocated her right thumb. She was alone in her hotel room when decided to take a bubble bath after a full day of meetings and sightseeing.  Her foot was already inside when she realized that she forgot her iPod so she quickly rushed to get it from her luggage. Her foot wet the marble floor or her bathroom but she didn’t mind it much. On her way back to the tub, she slipped and tried to save herself by landing on her right hand. This quickly turned into one of her most painful experiences. Although Carmel was relatively thin, the body weight caused her thumb to bend the wrong way, thus causing its dislocation.

When the bone has been forcibly moved from its normal position at the joint, a dislocation occurs. When the two ends of bones are displaced from their normal positions, the bones become dis or “apart” or location or “a place of settlement or activity,” hence there is a dislocation. A dislocated bone may lead to impairment of ligaments, nerves and blood vessels.

Dislocation usually results from falls, car accidents or collision during contact. The most common dislocation sites are the shoulders and elbows for adults and children, respectively. The larger joints of the body are more prone to dislocation. Nonetheless, the hand’s position makes the thumb susceptible to dislocation when it is bent the wrong way. Due to the dislocation, there will be a momentary dislocation and disable the action of the joint. Swelling and severe pain are some of the symptoms of dislocation.

If treated early, most dislocations will not lead to permanent damage. Therefore, medical attention must be called for immediately.  The victim should not be moved, especially if neck injury is suspected. Only move the victim if there is danger in the immediate surroundings. More so, dislocated bones should not be pushed back to its joint. Moving the bone may result to damaging the joint and its adjacent muscles, ligaments, nerves or blood vessels. Small nerve and blood vessels may be trapped and result to numb digits. Immobilize the injured area.

If one is trained to do so, sling and/ or splint the injury in its original location. Boards, rolled newspaper and numerous other materials may be used as splints. To minimize discomfort, splints may be padded. Slings may be used for arm or shoulder injuries. To reduce swelling and assist in relieving pain, apply ice

on the affected joint. This will control internal bleeding and accumulation of fluids in and surrounding area of the affected joint. Ice must not be directly applied to the skin and should be wrapped in a towel or other pieces of clothing. Check for breathing if injury is serious. If no breathing is observed, commence CPR. Raise the feet one foot. To reduce body heat loss, cover the patient with a blanket.

In most medical emergencies, first aid training and CPR may be applied. Especially athletes and those who work with them should be knowledgeable of proper treatment. workplace approved programs offer first aid training and CPR courses which are offered to the community.