Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Treating a propane burn

November 21st, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid for Burns - (Comments Off on Treating a propane burn)

Propane is a highly flammable, odorless and colorless gas. Odorants are just added to propane gas in order to avoid unnoticed leaks and spills. Propane gas is commonly used to heat homes, water and for cooking foods. Propane is safe for everyday use, but if it is not handled properly is can cause some harmful effects.

When handling a pressurized propane gas and it gets in contact with the eye of the individual, it can cause momentary freezing and leads to swelling and damage to the eye.

Contact of pressurized propane gas to a person’s skin can cause cryogenic burns or frostbite which will cause damage to skin and tissues caused by extreme cold and other injuries and this happens due to poor or unsafe handling such as spilling on the skin accidentally.

Using propane gas in a confined places can lead to overexposure and there is danger of inhaling high concentrations of gas and can cause serious problems such as unconsciousness, seizures, incapacitation and cardiac arrest. In some cases inhalation of propane gas, it can cause death by asphyxiation or suffocation because there is lack of oxygen. It is best that you prepared to handle an exposure to this gas by enrolling in a first aid course today.

Propane burn

In some cases inhalation of propane gas, it can cause death by asphyxiation or suffocation because there is lack of oxygen.

Propane gas can also be used for drying clothes, water heaters, patio heaters, fireplaces, furnaces and for gas grills

Treatment and home remedies

  • Cover or drape the affected area with a clean cloth or other types of dressing.
  • Fill a basin or tub with water that has neutral temperature that is neither hot nor cold and then immerse the affected area in order to relieve of the pain.
  • If eyes were in contact with propane gas, flush the eye with warm water, while holding the eyelids apart at least 15 minutes. Wear protective goggles when handling propane gas in order to prevent the possibility of eye contact with propane gas.
  • Avoid rubbing frostbitten or burned skin caused by propane gas. You have to immerse the affected area in lukewarm water until a sensation can be felt on the affected area.
  • The skin must be clean and dry and if any blister will form, you have to sterilize the affected area and cover it with bandages.
  • Wear thermal insulating gloves and a shield in order to avoid a contact of propane gas to the skin.
  • Seek medical help if the person is overexposed to propane gas. The person should be moved into a place where there is fresh air and away from the source of the exposure.
  • In order to avoid a possible overexposure to propane gas, the person should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in areas where the supply of oxygen is insufficient.
  • Allow the injured person to slowly work or exercise the affected area, and give him/ her warm, non-alcoholic drinks and stay away from cold or heat, such as snow, hot or cold water and heating lamps.

What are pemphigus and its treatment?

November 21st, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on What are pemphigus and its treatment?)

Pemphigus is a group of rare skin disorders that causes blisters on the skin and mucous membranes such as the mouth or on the genitals. There are two types – pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus. Pemphigus can happen at any age, but middle aged and older people are more susceptible to these disorders. Pemphigus is controlled by early diagnosis and treatment and similar to those used to treat severe burns.

Symptoms of pemphigus

Pemphigus is characterized by blisters on the skin and mucous membranes, and the blister will break easily and leaving open sores that can become infected.

  • Pemphigus vulgaris – It starts with a blister found in the mouth, which will break in the skin. This blister can also be found in the mucous membranes of the genitals and are very painful, but it does not cause itchiness. Blisters found in the mouth or throat makes it hard to swallow and to eat.
  • Pemphigus foliaceus – this type of pemphigus does not affect the mucous membranes and the blisters are found on the face and scalp and later will break on the chest and on the back. They are not painful, but they are itchy and crusty.

Some possible complications of pemphigus include infections that spread through the bloodstream also known as sepsis, side effects of medications like an increased risk of infection, certain infections of the skin and rare death from infection.


Avoid exposure to sunlight for a long period of time since ultraviolet lights can activate new blisters.

Treatment and home remedies

  • Avoid engaging in activities which can cause the skin to be touched or bumped such as contact sports.
  • Take care of wounds can help prevent infection and scaring. You can learn proper wound care by enrolling in a first aid class
  • Sprinkle talcum powder on the sheets in order to help keep creaking or oozing skin from sticking to the sheets.
  • Apply lotions or dressings in order to minimize discomfort, for reducing sores and blisters with drying lotions or using wet dressings.
  • Avoid eating spicy or acidic foods and foods containing garlic, onions and leeks. These food cause irritations and blisters.
  • Avoid exposure to sunlight for a long period of time since ultraviolet lights can activate new blisters.
  • Maintain good oral health, if blisters are inside the mouth it would be difficult to brush the teeth properly.

ome foods that causes pemphigus

  • Foods that contain tannins are found in foods and drinks such as bananas, blackberries, raspberries, pears, apples, cherries, mangoes, cranberries, grape skins, eggplants and avocados. Other foods that cause tannins are walnuts, cocoa seeds, black pepper, ginger, ginseng and arrowroot, and some beverages like coffee, soft drinks, wine and beer should be avoided.
  • Foods that contains isothiocyanates which are mustard oils that are found in some vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower, turnips, cabbage, Brussels, radish and horseradish. Seasoned sauces that contain synthetic mustard oils used for flavoring can cause irritation of the mucous membranes.
  • Foods that contains thiols, like onion, garlic and leeks they can cause blisters with people suffering from pemphigus.

How to treat swelling lymph nodes

November 21st, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat swelling lymph nodes)

Swelling lymph nodes happens when the body is exposed to bacteria or viruses and when it is caused by infection, it is known as lymphadenitis. The lymph nodes function to combat viruses, bacteria and other possible causes of illness. Areas where a swelling lymph node occurs are the neck under the chin, in the armpits and in the groins.

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Symptoms of swelling lymph nodes

Swelling lymph nodes are signs that something is wrong in certain parts of the body and once it swells the signs include the following:

Lymph nodes

There is tenderness and a painful lymph nodes

  • Swelling lymph nodes that are the size of a pea or a kidney bean or even larger
  • There is tenderness and a painful lymph nodes
  • There is runny nose, sore throat, fever and other infections of the upper respiratory system.
  • A swelling lymph node which can be caused by an infection such as HIV, an immune disorder such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis.
  • The limb are swelling which can be caused by a swollen lymph nodes
  • A rapidly growing hardened and fixed nodes, possibly a tumor
  • There is fever and sweating at night
  • Seek medical help if the swelling lymph node just occurred for no obvious reason, the nodes continue to grow for two to four weeks, the swelling is accompanied by a fever, sweating at night, losing weight. The nodes feel hard or rubbery and there is sore throat and difficulty in swallowing or breathing.

Causes of swelling lymph nodes

The cause of swollen lymph nodes is an infection, mostly a viral infection like the common cold, but there are other types of infections like parasitic and bacterial as well as other possible causes of swelling lymph nodes such as the following:

  • Measles and ear infections
  • Strep throat and infected or abscessed tooth
  • Mononucleosis
  • Cellulitis or erysipelas which are skin or infections of the wound
  • The virus that causes AIDS which is the human immunodeficiency virus or HIV.

Some uncommon infections include the following:

  • Syphilis which is a sexually transmitted disease
  • Tuberculosis
  • A parasitic infection caused by a contact with the feces of a cat or eating uncooked meat which is also known as toxoplasmosis.
  • A bacterial infection caused from a cat scratch or bite also known as cat scratch fever.

A swollen lymph node that is left untreated can lead to the development of complications such as the following:

  • Formation of abscess which is a localized collection of pus that is caused by an infection and it contains fluid, white blood cells, dead tissue and bacteria and some other invaders. An abscess can cause a severe damage if it involves the vital organs.
  • Bacteremia which is a bloodstream infection and it occurs anywhere in the body and can develop into sepsis that is caused by a devastating infection of the bloodstream. It can cause organ failure and even death.

Treatment and home remedies

  • Apply warm and wet compress or a washcloth placed in hot water and wrung out, and placed to the affected area.
  • Take over-the-counter pain relievers like aspirin and ibuprofen in order to lessen pain and fever.
  • Have an adequate rest for a quick recovery.

You can learn more about these treatment options by enrolling in one of the first aid courses being offered.

How to treat varicose veins

November 14th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat varicose veins)

Varicose veins are twisted and enlarged veins found near the surface of the skin and common in the legs and ankles. They can cause some other health issues that you should be familiar with.

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Varicose veins are caused by weakened valves and veins found in the legs and one way valves in the veins that keeps blood flowing from the legs going toward the heart. When these valves do not work properly, it will cause the build-up of blood and pressure in the legs and the veins will be weakened, thus becoming large and twisted.

Causes of varicose veins

  • There is damage to the veins found in the legs
  • Increased pressure in the veins of the legs
  • Venous insufficiency, like varicose veins runs in the family, a individual might have faulty valves or weakened vein walls. Women are more susceptible to varicose veins than in men and it develops during pregnancy.
  • Blood clots or obstruction found in the deep veins
  • Damage to the deep veins and anomalous blood vessels found between the veins and arteries.
  • Tumors
Varicose veins

Varicose veins are caused by weakened valves and veins found in the legs and one way valves in the veins that keeps blood flowing from the legs going toward the heart.

Symptoms of varicose veins

Mild symptoms

  • There is mild swelling, usually in the feet and ankles
  • A dull pain, burning or weight on the legs and is noticed later in the day or after standing or sitting for an extended period.
  • Itchy skin can felt over the location of the varicose vein.

Severe symptoms

  • Severe swelling and pain in the calf after standing or sitting for a long time
  • Swelling and build-up of fluid in the leg
  • Colour of the skin changes or stasis pigmentation around the ankles and the lower legs and the skin is dry, stretched, swelling, itching and scaling.
  • A blood clot and inflammation will occur in a small vein near the surface of the skin or also known as superficial thrombophlebitis.
  • There are ulceration or open wounds
  • There is bruising and bleeding after a minor injury

Symptoms become more severe a few days before and during a women’s menstrual period.

Some factors that can increase the risk of having varicose veins include the following:

  • Being female with repeated pregnancies and advancing age.
  • Having a family history of varicose veins
  • An overweight woman which is a strong factor in women.
  • Long periods of standing or sitting
  • Blood clots and vein injuries

Treatment and home remedies

  • Do some exercises and maintaining a healthy weight
  • Wear compression stockings
  • Avoid long periods of standing and sitting
  • Elevate the legs when sitting

After an injury such as bruising or bleeding when scratched or cutting a skin over a larger vein, small clots will form and can be treated with the following:

  • If the skin is cut or scratched over a vein, elevate the leg and apply ice or ice compress to minimize the bleeding. You can learn more about bleeding control by enrolling in a first aid class
  • Apply firm pressure using a clean bandage over the affected area for 15 minutes and if there is still bleeding, you have to apply pressure again for another 15 minutes.

Treatment for neurodermatitis

November 14th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Treatment for neurodermatitis)

Neurodermatitis begins with a patch of itchy skin. Once the individual frequently scratches the area, it makes the area even itchier and cycle of chronic itching and scratching can cause the skin to become thick and leathery. Neurodermatitis is also known as lichen simplex chronicus. If you want to learn more about this skin condition, click here.

Symptoms of neurodermatitis

  • An itchy skin found in a single limited area and the texture of the skin is leathery and scaly.
  • An elevated and rough patch and the color are red or darker than the rest of the skin.
  • The itchy patch of skin can be found in the neck, forearm, wrist, thigh and ankle and sometimes it can also affect the vulva and the scrotum. The itchiness is very intense but only comes and goes.

An itchy skin found in a single limited area and the texture of the skin is leathery and scaly.

Causes of neurodermatitis

Dermatitis can occur with something that rubs or cause irritation to the skin like tight clothing or a bite from an insect or continuous rubbing or scratching of the area until it becomes itchier. Dermatitis can also be caused by some conditions like dry skin, psoriasis or eczema. Stress and anxiety can also cause the itchiness.

Some factors that can increase the risk of acquiring neurodermatitis include the following:

  • Women between the ages 30 to 50 are more susceptible to acquire neurodermatitis.
  • Some people suffering from eczema, psoriasis or other skin conditions can have the possibility of developing neurodermatitis.
  • Stress and anxiety can start the itch linked with neurodermatitis.
  • Persistent scratching can cause bacterial skin infections and some permanent scars or changes in the color of the skin as well as disrupting the sleep pattern of the individual.

Treatment and home remedies

  • Over-the-counter medications like anti-itch cream or lotion to be applied to the affected area. Some non-prescription hydrocortisone cream can also relieve the itchiness. Oral antihistamine like Benadryl can be used if there is severe itching.
  • Cover the affected areas with bandages or dressing in order to protect the skin and to prevent scratching the skin during sleep.
  • Trimmed nails can cause less damage to the skin especially when scratching the skin during nighttime.
  • Take a cool bath and sprinkle the water with baking soda or oatmeal.
  • Use smooth clothing made of cotton to help avoid skin irritation.
  • Use mild soaps not containing perfumes or dyes and be sure to rinse the soap entirely from the body then apply an unscented moisturizer in order to protect the skin.
  • Minimize getting stressed since it can trigger the itchiness.

Prevention of neurodermatitis

In order to prevent neurodermatitis, the individual should wash his/her face with a facial cleanser or soap substitute and apply a facial moisturizer that is non-comedogenic.  It is also advised to use hypoallergenic make-up and sunscreens.

Avoid using hot water in taking a bath because it can cause drying of the skin. Instead, take a short and warm shower. Once the skin starts to itch, avoid scratching since it can break the skin and bacteria can enter and start an infection.

How to treat hypoglycemia

November 14th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat hypoglycemia)

Hypoglycemia is a health issue that is characterized by an abnormal reduced level of blood sugar which is the main source of energy by the body. Hypoglycemia is linked with the management of diabetes, but there are conditions that cause low blood sugar in people without diabetes.

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If you will enroll in a first aid course, you will learn how to determine if an individual is hypoglycemic and the appropriate steps to take to prevent the condition from worsening.

Symptoms of hypoglycemia

The body needs a steady supply of sugar for it to function properly. Once the glucose level is low, it affects the brain with the following symptoms.

  • Visual disturbances such as double vision and blurred vision
  • Loss of unconsciousness
  • There is confusion and abnormal behavior such as the inability to complete tasks
  • Seizures
  • Other signs and symptoms include shakiness, sweating, hunger, heart palpitations, anxiety and tingling sensations felt around the mouth.

Other signs and symptoms include shakiness, sweating, hunger, heart palpitations, anxiety and tingling sensations felt around the mouth.

Causes of hypoglycemia

  • Some medications or combinations of medication that diabetics use causes the increase in insulin that helps the body store and use glucose, and sometimes the increase in insulin causes low blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
  • Some medications for diabetes like metformin or glimepiride and used in combination with other medications can also cause low blood sugar levels.
  • Not following proper eating plan such as skipping meals or snacks and eating inadequate portions can cause lowering of the blood sugar levels.
  • Doing strenuous physical activities can also reduce blood sugar levels and drinking alcohol can cause hypoglycemia, if consumed in an empty stomach.
  • Surgeries that remove some portions of the stomach can also cause hypoglycemia because enzymes and hormones that aids in the digestion are drastically reduced.
  • A pancreatic tumor can cause production of excessive insulin that can lead to fasting hypoglycemia and some autoimmune disorders can cause lowering of the sugar level.

An untreated hypoglycemia can result in loss of consciousness, seizures, and death especially people suffering from diabetes.

Treatment and home remedies

  • Eating something that is sweet that contains simple sugars. Simple sugars can break down into glucose and can be absorbed in the bloodstream like hard candies and fruit juice.
  • Take smaller meals frequently since the blood sugar level drop between meals, thus it is important to eat more often in order to prevent in the decrease in the blood sugar level.
  • Eat more complex carbohydrate or starches during every meal. Complex carbohydrates can be broken down into glucose and will be the basis of each meal.
  • People suffering from severe hypoglycemia should be injected with glucagon directly into the vein since it quickly raises the level of blood sugar in the body.
  • For a severe hypoglycemia, provide the person with intravenous dextrose if he/she is having a seizure or in a state of coma.

Treatment for endometriosis

November 7th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Treatment for endometriosis)

Endometriosis is a problem suffered by women during the childbearing years. A type of tissue that lines the uterus and also growing outside the uterus, it causes pain and other symptoms. The clusters of tissue that are growing outside of the uterus are called implants and they grow on the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the outer walls of the uterus, the intestines and organs of the belly. If you want to learn more about this condition, read here.

The tissue that lines the uterus is called endometrium. Every month the body will release hormones that will cause the endometrium to become thick and will be ready for an egg. If a woman gets pregnant, the fertilized egg will attach to the endometrium and will start to grow, but if there is no pregnancy the endometrium will break down and the body will shed it out as blood, known as the menstrual period.

In endometriosis, the implants of tissues found outside of the uterus will act like the tissue lining the uterus and during the menstrual cycle, they become thicker, break down and bleed. The implants are outside of the uterus, so the blood cannot go out of the body and they become irritated and painful. Oftentimes, they can form scar or sacs that are filled with fluid called cysts. This scar tissue makes it hard for woman to get pregnant.


Low back pain 1-2 days before the menstrual period

Causes of endometriosis

  • A retrograde menstruation which is a heavy bleeding or an abnormal structure of the cervix, uterus, or the vagina which causes too many endometrial cells going to the fallopian tubes.
  • The immune system of the body
  • Lymph fluid or blood carries endometrial cells to other parts of the body
  • Endometrial cells that forms outside the uterus when they were a fetus.

Symptoms of endometriosis

  • Severe menstrual cramps
  • Pelvic and rectal pain
  • Low back pain 1-2 days before the menstrual period
  • Pain during bowel movements

A woman’s risk of having an endometriosis is higher for the following:

  • A woman between puberty and menopause around the age 50.
  • The mother or sister has or had suffered endometriosis and this risk seems to be passed on by the mother.
  • The menstrual cycle is less than 28 days.
  • Started menstruating before the age 12 and the menstrual flow is longer than seven days.
  • Never been pregnant
  • The uterus, cervix or the vagina has an abnormal shape that blocks or slows down menstrual flow.

Treatment and home remedies

  • Apply hot compress to the lower belly or use a heating pad or a hot water bottle or take a warm bath since they improve the blood flow and minimizes pelvic pain.
  • Lie down in bed and place a pillow under the knees, then lie on the side and bring the knees up to the chest in order to relieve back pressure.
  • Use some relaxation techniques and biofeedback.
  • Perform regular exercises to improve blood flow, it will increase the pain-relieving endorphins made by the body and minimizes pains.
  • Sexual activity can help reduce cramping and backaches.

How to treat blood blisters

November 7th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat blood blisters)

A blood blister happens when the skin found in the fingers or toes is pinched or bruised. This blister looks like a blister bubble but the color of the bubble can be red or purple, as if a blood is pooling in the blister. Blood blisters can be painful and popping this blister can cause skin infections.

Blood blister can result from different kinds of causes which includes trauma to the skin such as forceful pinching, burning or scalding, exposure of the skin to chemicals, allergens present on the skin as well as fungal or viral skin infections. Blood blisters can also be caused from a friction particularly a new shoe that buffs a blister on the foot.

Treatment and prevention of blood blisters

Blood blister

Blood blister can result from different kinds of causes which includes trauma to the skin such as forceful pinching, burning or scalding, exposure of the skin to chemicals, allergens present on the skin as well as fungal or viral skin infections.

  • Apply cold compress immediately after an injury to minimize swelling to slow down the leakage and for prevention of bruising. Wrap a few pieces of ice cubes in a wash cloth and apply the compress to the affected areas for 10 minutes.
  • Raise the affected areas above the heart in order to stop the bleeding and lessen the pressure. If the blister is on the foot, it can be elevated by laying in a bed and place the foot on few stacks of pillows.
  • In helping stop the formation of blood blisters after the skin is caught or pinched between hard surfaces, you have to moisten the skin and make it pliable by drinking lot of fluids and moisturizing the skin daily.
  • In reducing swelling, use Epsom salts since it relaxes sore muscles and soothes the affected skin and also can ease the swelling. Mix ¼ cup Epsom salt for every gallon of water. Soak the affected area in this mixture for about 15 minutes.
  • Cover the blood blister in order to avoid unintentionally popping it as well as protection from daily activities. If the blister is under constant pressure, cover it with a strip of medical tape.
  • If blood blister was accidentally broken, immediately rinse the affected area with soap and water, then apply a thin layer of antibacterial ointment like Neosporin and cover the affected area with a clean bandage. Continue to wash and reapplying a clean bandage every four hours. If you want to learn how to manage a popped open blister, click here.
  • If the blister is not healing, getting worse and becoming painful, it can be infected and symptoms of infection are fever, pain in the affected area, upset stomach, red line spreading from the affected areas and some lesions. If these symptoms are present, it’s time to seek a medical help.

Important tips and warnings

  • A blood blister heals with or without treatment.
  • Never unintentionally pop or drain a blood blister.
  • If a person has a blood blister that is caused by severe cold, he/she can be suffering from frostbite and must seek medical help immediately.
  • If the blood blister is causing severe pain, getting worse, and there are symptoms of infections, there is a need for immediate medical attention.