Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Shellfish: Crab and prawn allergy

April 24th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Shellfish: Crab and prawn allergy)

Allergy on shellfish is an abnormal response by the immune system of the body to proteins in some marine animals like shrimp and crabs. Some people with allergy on shellfish reacts to all types which ranges from mild symptoms such as hives or a stuffy nose and severe reactions that can be life threatening.

Causes of shellfish allergy

Allergies on foods are caused by an overreaction of the immune system of the body where the immune system identifies the shellfish protein as harmful and produces antibodies to the shellfish protein or allergen. The next time the body comes in contact with the allergen, the immune system will release histamine and other chemicals that will trigger the symptoms of allergy.

Symptoms of crab allergy

  • After eating a dish that contains crab, there are itching sensations throughout the body and followed by rashes and hives.
  • Difficulty in breathing and throat irritation caused by swelling of the windpipe and mucus membrane of the throat. If this occurs, it is time to seek medical help immediately.
  • The person will have diarrhea and vomiting with abdominal cramps.
  • The affected person will experience dizziness and tightness of the chest.
  • Anaphylaxis which is a very dangerous situation involves dizziness, low blood pressure and difficulty in breathing. This requires immediate medical attention.

Symptoms of prawn allergy


Anaphylaxis which is a very dangerous situation involves dizziness, low blood pressure and difficulty in breathing.

  • The affected person will have hives and rashes on the skin
  • Coughing and difficulty in breathing
  • Sneezing and watery eyes
  • The face and other parts of the body are swollen
  • Abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhea
  • Swelling of the throat and difficulty in swallowing
  • Anaphylaxis which is a life threatening condition that needs medical help immediately.

Once an individual experiences any of the following symptoms after eating crab or shrimp, it might indicate an allergic reaction. A doctor should be consulted for a proper diagnosis in which the individual will undergo allergy testing to determine the exact allergen.

Complications of shrimp and crab allergy

A person with shellfish allergy like shrimp and crab face a high risk of anaphylaxis if he/she has certain conditions such as asthma, an allergic reaction to small amounts of shellfish and a history of food-induced anaphylaxis.

Treatment and home remedies of shrimp and crab allergy

  • Avoid eating seafood and shellfish if the affected person has history of shrimp and crab allergy.
  • Drink substantial amount of fluids if the individual experiences vomiting and diarrhea. Combine lemon juice, salt and sugar in a glass of water and drink this several times a day to balance out the loss of fluid in the body.
  • Take prescribed antihistamine medications.
  • Apply aloe vera for skin rashes and itchiness or applying cold sponge to lessen the discomfort
  • Eat vitamin C rich foods and eat banana or pomegranate if diarrhea is present
  • Drink lime water that is mixed with honey every morning in order to enhance the immune system of the body.

Blood clot in the calf

April 24th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Blood clot in the calf)

A direct rounded trauma in the calf region can cause formation of blood clot in the deep veins of the lower leg and will cause pain as well as cause blockage in the circulation of blood. The calf area will be swollen and tender to the touch.

The vein is a vessel that carries blood to the heart. There are two types of veins, the superficial and the deep veins. The deep vein is located deep inside the tissue and muscles, while the superficial veins are located on the surface of the skin which is green in color. Deep veins are larger in size and have a valve that pushes the blood toward the heart.

Calf veins are prone to end up with deep vein thrombosis. A thrombus is a small-sized blood clot found in the vessel. It can be caused by smoking, immobility of a person for long periods of time, birth control pills, fractures, being obese, sitting for long periods of time and post-operative complications.

Symptoms of blood clot in the calf

Blood clot in the calf

Persistent pain caused by stasis of blood in the lower leg

  • Pain can be felt in the lower leg, usually in the calf muscles if there is blood clot in that area.
  • A burning pain in the ankle and foot
  • Flexing of the affected leg is difficult due to the severe pain
  • Persistent pain caused by stasis of blood in the lower leg
  • The back of the affected calf area becomes warm and red due to the inflammation.
  • The calf area is tender and sensitive when touched
  • There is difficulty in moving, standing and walking caused by the clot in the calf muscle.
  • Pulmonary embolism, stroke, heart attack and other complications can be caused by the blood clot in the calf.

If the following symptoms are present, it simply indicates a blood clot in the calf. It is best to consult a doctor for proper treatment of the condition.

Treatment and home remedies of blood clot in the calf

  • Anticoagulants can be used with deep vein thrombosis. This medication stops fresh clots from forming while at the same time melt the already present clot in the vein. This form of treatment can last for a few months.
  • Use compression stockings in order to minimize the pain and swelling. These should be worn throughout the day when there is a blood clot in the calf.
  • Stop taking birth control pills and stop smoking.
  • Avoid standing for long periods of time in order to minimize the pressure on the legs.
  • When sitting or lying down, elevate the affected leg on a chair or pillow. It should be elevated above the level of the heart to help reduce the pressure and pain.
  • Apply a warm compress on the affected area as long as necessary in order to reduce the pain which can be done while the individual is relaxing or sleeping.
  • You can also compress the affected leg by covering it snugly using an Ace bandage, brace or specialized stockings.

Management of stasis dermatitis

April 24th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Management of stasis dermatitis)

Dermatitis is an irritation of the skin along with scaling, dry skin, redness, itchiness and oftentimes, there is oozing, crust formation and erosions. Statis involves leg swelling with poor circulation and buildup of fluid.

Stasis dermatitis is the irritation of the skin and breakdown caused by accumulation of fluid under the skin. It is also caused by venous insufficiency, heart failure as well as other health issues that can cause swelling in the legs, but it can also happen in other areas of the body. It is an eczematous skin lesion which develops in the leg caused by pooling of blood. Venous insufficiency is caused by varicose veins and hypertension. When the valves of veins are weak, it will cause congestion and stasis of blood, capillary pressure and cause swelling in the legs and ankle with dark pigmentation. An eczematous rash has itching, dryness and skin picking using the fingers around the affected area. If this condition is left untreated, it will cause ulcers and deep rooted infection of the lower limb.

Stasis dermatitis causes

The condition happens after the age forty and women are more susceptible to this condition than men. Some risk factors that increase the probability of stasis dermatitis include the following:

  • Poor circulation of blood in the leg caused by clot formation
  • Varicose veins
  • Obesity
  • Hypertension
  • Pregnancy
  • Traumatic injury and fractures
  • An enlarged heart and persistent kidney disease
  • An inactive lifestyle
  • Working environment where the person has to stand for long periods of time
  • Persistent smoker
Statis dermatitis

Change in the color of the affected leg, color of the skin becomes red and dark brown around the ankles and the lower leg.

Symptoms of stasis dermatitis

  • The affected leg is swollen.
  • Change in the color of the affected leg, color of the skin becomes red and dark brown around the ankles and the lower leg.
  • The skin of the affected area becomes dry and there is itchiness.
  • The skin becomes thick and a lesion may open along with sticky or watery fluid that starts to ooze out from the lesion.
  • A crust may form over the affected area.
  • An ulceration which is a secondary infection of the skin has the tendency to penetrate the bone.
  • An ulcer if left untreated will not heal and becomes enlarged.
  • An ulcer that will heal can leave behind a permanent scarring.

Treatment and home remedies of stasis dermatitis

  • Wear compression stockings in order to put pressure on the veins and push the blood upwards and minimize accumulation of fluid. Wear compression stockings throughout the day
  • Apply wet dressing with aloe juice.
  • Keep the leg elevated above the level of the heart whenever he/she is sitting or sleeping.
  • Avoid standing for long periods of time
  • When there is ulceration, using homeopathic solution of calendula helps promote the healing process. Apply the gauze that is immersed in the solution for 1-2 hours. This should be done at least 2-3 times a day.
  • If the individual is overweight, he/she should try to cut down his/her weight.
  • Try walking for 30-40 minutes every day in order to increase the blood circulation in the leg.
  • Avoid smoking.

What is hirsutism?

April 17th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on What is hirsutism?)

Hirsutism is a condition in women where there is excessive hair growth found in the face and other areas of the body. The hair is fine, thin and less visible. Sometimes, women who are suffering from hirsutism have darkened and crude hair that is found in their cheeks, chest, upper lips, inner thighs and the back. It is important to note that that 5-10% of women in the childbearing age is susceptible to this condition. This condition is due to an increased discharge of the hormone testosterone.

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Causes of hirsutism

  • A condition where there is excess production of androgen which is known as polycystic ovarian disease. Women with this condition experience symptoms such as weight gain, absence of menstruation or irregular menses and some infertility problems
  • Cushing syndrome is a condition where there is an excess production of cortisol, which is a type of steroid hormone.
  • Some changes in the level of hormone during menopause can cause growths of hair found on the upper lip, cheek and chin.
  • The use of certain medications that can cause facial growth in women such as anabolic steroids, danazol and glucocorticoids.
  • Tumor in the ovary or in the adrenal glands
  • A family history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and some ethnic women are susceptible to hirsutism.

Hirsutism is a condition in women where there is excessive hair growth found in the face and other areas of the body.

Symptoms of hirsutism

  • There is an increased growth of hair in the upper lip, face, chest, back, cheek and around the nipples.
  • Deepening of the voice and male pattern voice
  • There is irregularity or complete absence of menstruation
  • Acne and a recession of hair on the forehead which is an early male pattern of baldness.
  • There is an increase in the size of the clitoris, a small breast size and presence of hair around the nipple and between the breasts.
  • Depression and high blood pressure
  • An increased muscle mass

Treatment and home remedies of hirsutism

  • Take birth control pills in order to balance the hormones and counteract the effects of androgen hormones which are high in women with hirsutism.
  • Certain techniques such as waxing, shaving, plucking, bleaching and electrolysis. The use of laser to remove hair is effective since it destroys the roots of the hair.
  • A natural remedy such as using turmeric is effective in making coarse hair disappear. Mix a pinch of turmeric powder in milk and apply it to the face, then let it stay in place for 30 minute. After 30 minutes, wash the face.

Other remedies

  • Mix 2 teaspoons of gram flour with a pinch of turmeric and add just enough milk to create a paste. Apply to the face and neck and leave it on for at least 15 minutes. Scrub it off using the finger tips and rinse the face using warm water. This must be done on a daily basis. After two or three months, the hair on the face and neck along with a glowing complexion.
  • Drink spearmint tea which is suitable if the mild symptoms of hirsutism are present. Prepare the tea by boiling 250 milliliters of boiling water and mix a teaspoon of dried leaves and let it precipitate for 5-10 minutes.

Peroneal tendonitis

April 10th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Peroneal tendonitis)

Peroneal tendonitis is an inflammatory change that occurs in the peroneal tendons. Tendons are connecting points between the bones and muscles. Peroneal tendonitis is a condition of the foot and ankle caused by repeated stress and a high force that is exerted on the tendons. It usually affects people who are playing volleyball, football, skiing and running on uneven surface. Inflammation in these areas can take weeks or months to heal since tendons heal slowly. Rest and stretching are important strategies to promote the healing process.

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Causes of peroneal tendonitis

  • The peroneal muscle found at the back of the lower leg has a tendon which is found behind the lateral malleolus on the outside of the ankle. Overuse causes the peroneal tendon to rub on the bone and become inflamed.
  • Runners who are running along slopes can cause excessive aversion or rolling out of the foot that is prone to develop peroneal tendonitis.
  • Tight calf muscle increases the tension in the peroneal tendon and causing it to rub more
  • A hurried training program and wearing improper shoes for long durations can cause peroneal tendonitis.
  • Lack of proper warm up exercises, tightness of the muscle, incorrect running techniques, overexerting sessions of training and ankle joint
Peroneal tendonitis

There is pain and swelling on the outer part of the ankle below the bony part and the outer foot.

Symptoms of peroneal tendonitis

  • There is pain and swelling on the outer part of the ankle below the bony part and the outer foot.
  • The pain becomes worse with activities such as walking or running on uneven surface and minimized after taking a rest.
  • The pain caused by peroneal tendonitis is gradual and progressive. It worsens when performing activities for a long period of time and can be felt at the back and the lateral sides of the ankles when exerting finger or thumb pressure.
  • There is difficulty in twisting the foot inwards caused by the pain as it stretches the peroneal muscle and the tendon.


  • Rest and avoid any activities which can worsen the condition, but swimming helps in stretching the muscles without putting excess strain on the muscles.
  • Apply an ice pack on the affected area. You can use an ice bag that is wrapped in a towel and place it over the outer side of the ankle area at least 10 minutes for 2-3 times a day for a few days.
  • Take prescribed anti-inflammatory medications in order to minimize pain and inflammation.
  • Keep the foot elevated above the level of the heart during sleep or when resting.
  • Wear proper shoes which are suited for the activities being engaged in.
  • Regular stretching of peroneal calf muscle is important. If they are tight and rigid, it produces more friction between the tendon and the bone which delays the healing of the affected area.
  • Deep tissue massage and acupressure can be performed in order to help minimize the tension in the peroneal tendon and the peroneal calf muscles are relaxed.
  • Once the pain and swelling is reduced, he/she can return to the normal activities gradually and slowly. A sudden increase in the level of activity can cause interruption of the healing process.

Treatment of shoulder tendonitis

April 10th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Treatment of shoulder tendonitis)

Tendonitis is a condition that happens when one of the tendons that connect the muscles to the bones that function in supporting them becomes inflamed. Remember that the shoulder is susceptible to this condition. If an individual is suspected with this condition, a doctor should be consulted.

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The shoulder joint is a complex joint that is supported by muscles and tendons to keep it steady. An outside trauma, daily stretch and strain makes the shoulder susceptible to many problems. People who are at the age of 40 are more susceptible to this condition which tends to weaken as the person gets older.

Causes of shoulder tendonitis

  • A sudden and sharp movement, injuries during accidents or sports
  • The normal wear and tear due to aging and some underlying conditions such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.
Shoulder tendonitis

A dull aching pain can be felt in the shoulder that becomes worse during activity.

Symptoms of shoulder tendonitis

  • A dull aching pain can be felt in the shoulder that becomes worse during activity.
  • There is tenderness and mild swelling
  • Pain and stiffness when lifting the arms and the shoulder becomes painful when the arm is lowered after lifting
  • Pain when lifting the arm overhead
  • Burning pain can be felt from the front of the shoulder to the sides.
  • There is weakness of the shoulder because of the pain
  • There is difficulty in moving the arm behind the back while buttoning
  • Not capable of playing sports that requires throwing

Treatment and home remedies

  • Rest the shoulder; avoid doing strenuous activities in order to help heal the damaged tendon.
  • Apply a cold compress since it helps minimize inflammation in the tendon, increase circulation and for faster healing. It must be applied for 20-30 minutes each for 2-4 hour when the injury is warm. Afterwards, hot compress should be applied alternately with ice compress since heat will relax the muscle tendon and help in restoring the range of motion.
  • As cold and hot compress is applied alternately to the affected area, move and stretch the shoulder joint when possible in order to prevent frozen shoulder. This should be done slowly, but stop if there is pain.
  • Natural substances such as arnica helps in minimizing pain and swelling, but avoid taking anti-inflammatory medications during the first 48-72 hours since it can cause bleeding.
  • In order to protect and support the injured tendon, there is a need to wear a sling or tape the shoulder for relief of pain
  • The individual should be encouraged to sleep in an upright position or with a pillow support
  • Shoulder tendonitis takes several weeks to heal and during this time, it is important to stretch and adjust the healing scar by joint mobilization, massage, muscle stretches and assisted light exercises.

With the help of these measures, the symptoms of shoulder tendonitis can be managed to provide relief to the individual.

Management of calluses on the knees

April 3rd, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Management of calluses on the knees)

Calluses are thickened, rough and hard surfaces on the skin that is formed due to intermittent pressure and friction at a particular area. Calluses usually develop on the foot, under the toes, hand and sometimes on the elbows and knees. In most cases, the color of the calluses are usually yellow or grey and can be hard and dry.

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Calluses occur on the knees usually on the front portion which is more susceptible to friction while doing various activities. The area where the calluses occur is slightly raised and bumpy, less sensitive to touch and pain than the surrounding skin. Sometimes, calluses found on the knees are painful and becomes worse when bending the knees or while stretching the lower extremity.

Calluses on the knee

Calluses on the knee can also develop among individuals who have certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint.

Causes of calluses on knees

  • Calluses can occur on the feet or hands usually by using tight shoes, constant rubbing of the skin while doing physical work, handling tools, playing certain sports such as tennis and badminton.
  • An area in the skin which is prone to friction and pressure for long periods of time becomes dead and it will form a hard layer and not caused by virus. People working in gardens and placing pressure on the knees while working are prone to calluses and thickened skin in the knees.
  • Calluses on the knee can also develop among individuals who have certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis of the knee joint.

Treatment and home remedies of calluses on knees

Calluses can be managed with various treatment options.

  • It takes time for a callus in the knees to be cured and a constant routine is the basis for the treatment of removing the calluses.
  • Keep the callus skin moist and apply moisturizers in order to soften the calluses.
  • Soak the knees regularly in warm and soapy water since it helps soften the callous. After soaking, rub the affected area with a wash cloth or rub it gently using a moist pumice stone in order to remove dead skin cells and make the callus soft. Before using a pumice stone, apply petroleum jelly or coconut oil regularly on the affected area.
  • In order to prevent callus from worsening, protect the knee from friction and rubbing by using a knee pad since it helps minimize pressure on the knees.
  • Place a salicylic acid patch on each knee every day or at night in order to minimize the calluses.
  • If the person is diagnosed with diabetes, he/she is at risk for infection which is difficult to treat and there is a need to seek medical help.

Tips to bear in mind

Remove dead skin cells from the skin at least once or twice in week in order to prevent the buildup of callus and moisturize the skin every day. The individual can seek medical help if there is difficulty in removing the callus.