Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Broken collarbone

August 21st, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Broken collarbone)

The clavicle or the collarbone is the bone found in both sides of the chest. These bones and the ligaments function in connecting the sternum or breastbone to both shoulders. A broken collarbone is a common injury among children and adults. It can be caused by injuries from sports, fall on a shoulder and vehicular accidents. This condition causes severe pain and tenderness of the joint and there is limited movement of the joint and inflammation and swelling of the affected area.

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Causes of a broken collarbone

  • A weak structure of bone due to genetic or from an acquired condition such as osteoporosis or cancer
  • Sometimes, during delivery, the force used in delivering the baby can cause breakage of the collarbone.
  • Sometimes in rare cases, the doctor has to break the collarbone of the infant in order for the baby to be delivered safely and this only happens when a process called shoulder dystocia will develop.
  • Caused by falling directly on the shoulder or an outstretched arm during playing or sports.
  • A direct blow to the collarbone such as tackling in football without wearing pads or crosschecked during playing hockey or lacrosse.
  • An attack of seizure can damage the collarbone.
Broken collarbone

Sudden pain in the area of the fracture

Symptoms of a broken collarbone

  • Sudden pain in the area of the fracture
  • A snapping sound can be heard on the affected area
  • The affected side is drooping downward and forward caused by gravity.
  • There is a severe pain when touching the collarbone along its length
  • The skin sometimes bulges outward and becomes discolored to reddish-purple which indicates an early bruise.

An individual suspected with a broken collarbone will manifest any of these signs and symptoms.

Management of a broken collarbone

  • Apply an ice pack over the affected area at least 2-3 days after the fracture. All you have to do is wrap a few pieces of ice cubes in a cloth or an ice bag and apply over the affected area. This helps minimize the pain, inflammation and tenderness.
  • The individual should get plenty of rest in order to help with the fast healing of the condition.
  • Wear an arm sling or a “figure-eight” strap that will fit around both shoulders to keep the bone in position. The duration of the immobilization will depend on the extent of the injury. The joining together of the bones takes about 4-6 weeks while children requires 6-12 weeks.
  • Take the prescribed medications in order to minimize the swelling and pain.
  • Perform some rehabilitation exercises and physiotherapy in order to help restore the strength of the muscle, movement of the joint as well as flexibility.
  • The pain from a broken collarbone is usually minimized within 2-3 weeks. After this period, the individual can continue with the activities such as playing sports within 12 weeks.

Tibial stress fracture

August 21st, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Tibial stress fracture)

A tibial stress fracture is a condition where there is an incomplete crack found in the lower leg bone or shin bone. When engaging in weight bearing activities such as running, severe force is placed on the tibia and several muscles that are connected to the tibia. When they contract, a pulling force is being exerted on the bone. Forces that are excessive, repetitive and beyond the capacity of the bone can gradually cause damage. With continued damage, it can result to a tibial stress fracture. Stress fractures require proper treatment in order to avoid further damage.

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Causes of tibial stress fractures

  • Running long distance that causes fatigue in the muscle as well as puts stress to the bone and cause a fracture.
  • Excessive weight-bearing on the bone caused by continuous contraction of the muscles such as in running.
  • Changes in the training regime such as running on uneven surfaces after running on even surfaces such as road or grass.
  • Repetitive stress or impact that is subjected to the bone can result to a fracture.
  • Other causes such as bad foot posture, strenuous training, poor biomechanics, stiffness of the joints, ill-fitting footwear, weakness or fatigue, unequal length of the legs, irregularity of menstruation and obesity
  • Poor eating habits
  • Individuals who have flat feet and high arches face a higher risk of developing stress fractures in the shin bone.

Symptoms of a tibial stress fracture

Tibial stress fracture

Severe pain that becomes worse when engaging in activities and minimized when resting.

An individual suspected with a tibial stress fracture usually have the following signs and symptoms.

  • Severe pain that becomes worse when engaging in activities and minimized when resting.
  • Pain can be felt in the outer area of the lower third tibia
  • The affected area is swollen
  • There is difficulty in walking along with pain
  • The individual experiences pain during night time and while at rest
  • Pain can be felt when pressure is applied to the shin.

Treatment and home remedies for a tibial stress fracture

  • Encourage individual to rest for at least 8 weeks. Avoid engaging in any weight-bearing exercises such as running. Running in water with a buoyancy aid or belt can be done instead of running in the road.
  • Apply an ice pack for 10 minutes at a time in order to minimize swelling and pain for 3-4 times every day.
  • If the cause of the fracture is caused by changes in training, these activities should be avoided in the future.
  • Using crutches can help avoid full weight bearing.
  • Massage the affected area.
  • Gradually return to training and sports.
  • Perform exercises that maintains strength and flexibility in the lower leg such as light calf raises if there is no pain felt and also perform exercises in the wobble balance board
  • Use appropriate footwear for any activity engaged in.
  • Maintain proper nutrition in order to keep the bones strong as well as eat foods rich in calcium and other nutrients.

Muscle Strain: First Aid Management

August 12th, 2015 | Posted by Mikha Canon in Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Muscle Strain: First Aid Management)

Muscle strain is an injury to the muscles or tendons (links muscles together) that pertains to the sudden tearing of the muscle fibers caused by exertion or over stretching. Muscle strain may occur partially or completely, with the latter being more difficult to treat. The most commonly affected muscles of muscle strain are the lower back, shoulder, neck and hamstring (muscle behind the thigh). Muscle strain should not be confused with muscle sprain, which is caused by torn fibers in the ligament.

Muscle strain is also called pulled muscle or muscle tear.

The ba

The lower back, along with the shoulder. neck and hamstring, are the most commonly  affected muscles of muscle strain

Causes of Muscle Strain

Muscle strains don’t always occur with extreme or strenuous activities. They may also occur while doing normal activities. Muscle strain usually results from fatigue, improper or overuse. The following may lead to muscle strain:

  • Sports training or performance (which makes athletes more at risk for muscle strain)
  • Quick and abrupt heavy lifting
  • Work tasks

Signs and Symptoms of Muscle Strain

The signs and symptoms of muscle strain may include:

  • Local bleeding or bruising (or any skin discoloration) caused by damage in the small blood vessels
  • Open cuts
  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Stiffness that is localized
  • Pain upon moving the affected muscle or joint
  • Pain that manifests even at rest caused by irritation of the nerve endings in the affected region
  • Muscle or tendon weakness
  • Unable to use the muscle (loss of efficient movement)

First Aid Management for Muscle Strain

Mild to moderate cases of muscle strain can be managed at home by giving first aid to casualties. The primary goal of muscle strain is to reduce pain and swelling. This can be done by following price and avoiding HARM.

PRICE Therapy (Protect, Rest, Ice, Compress, Elevate)

  • Protect the strained muscle from further injury –best to use a support that will increase protection
  • Rest the strained muscle or tendon, thus do not engage in further activities that may worsen the injury; it is advisable to avoid activity for 48 to 72 hours
  • Ice wrapped in cloth or towel should be placed over the affected muscle or tendon for 15 to 20 minutes every 2 to 3 hours while awake. Do not apply ice directly on the skin and ensure that it is not left for too long.
  • Compress or bandage the affected area to help limit swelling and movement that may exacerbate the injury. Bandage firmly but not too tightly to ensure that blood flow is maintained.
  • Elevate the affected area for 12 inches or place on top of a pillow to help limit swelling.
  • Bonus: Take painkillers and anti-inflammatory medicines, such as ibuprofen and aspirin to help reduce pain and improve movement.

HARM (Heat, Alcohol, Running, Massage)

  • Avoid Heat on the affected area as this may actually increase pain and swelling. Only apply heat once there has been an obvious reduction in swelling.
  • Avoid Alcohol as apart from hastening the healing period, it increases bleeding and swelling
  • Avoid Running or any form of exercise that may lead to aggravation.
  • Avoid Massage because it may increase swelling and bleeding.

Learn how to properly manage muscle strain and other common muscle injuries by enrolling in First Aid Courses.

Muscle strain is the sudden tearing of the muscle fibers due to exertion or over stretching. It is also called pulsed muscle. First Aid Treatment for muscle strain follows PRICE and avoids HARM.

Close look on corn in the toes

August 7th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Close look on corn in the toes)

Corns are considered as common conditions of the feet and they are comprised of hard and dead skin. Hard corns can occur on the top and sides of the toes while the soft corns can form between the toes. Soft corns can be irritating and usually causes pain and infection.

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A corn that develops between the toes is called a soft corn. It is caused by wearing shoes that are too tight, having narrow toe areas and wearing shoes that forces the toe into an awkward position. Soft corn can also develop when there is plenty of moisture trapped in between the toes and when there is friction between the toes due to wearing too tight socks and shoes.

What are the types of corn?

  • The seed corn which is known as a “porokeratotic lesion” normally forms on the ball or heel of the foot. It is stiff and shaped like a circle and it forms in the middle of a callus.
  • The hard corn which is known as “heloma durum” can develop outside of the baby toe, on the ball of the toe and on top of the toe. In most cases, they are usually thick, compact and hard to the touch.
  • The listers corn which is mistaken as a second toenail. It develops on the small toe next to the nail which is hard and looks similar to a toenail.
  • The soft corn which is called “heloma molles” forms between the toes and has damp and white skin. It usually develops between the fourth and the fifth toes and sometimes it is called as the kissing corn. Soft corns become infected if left untreated and can cause severe pain when they open and form ulcers between the toes. The two bones between the toes rub each other can cause irritation which eventually develops into soft corns. The moist skin of the corn is caused by the sweat found between the toes. Once it is infected, the soft corn can end intensely sore that the individual might have difficulty walking normally.

Wear a corn pad to be placed between the toes in order to help prevent friction and sweat from causing irritation on the tissues.

Treatment and home remedies of soft corns

  • Soak the feet for 20 minutes every day in a soapy water in order to soften the skin and rub them gently using a callus brush.
  • Wear a corn pad to be placed between the toes in order to help prevent friction and sweat from causing irritation on the tissues.
  • Rub off the dead skin using a pumice stone in order to help avoid irritation and minimize the risk for the development of soft corns.
  • Dust off talcum powder over the area in between the toes since this can help keep the surplus moisture from developing between the toes.
  • Apply hydrocortisone cream in order to prevent itching and fast healing of an irritated soft corn.

Just remember though that it is best to seek medical help immediately if the pain and swelling persists.

Contact dermatitis on the eyelids

August 7th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Contact dermatitis on the eyelids)

Contact dermatitis on the eyelid is a condition that affects the skin of the eyelids. Any substance that comes in contact with skin of the eyelids can cause inflammation and irritation. Contact dermatitis on the eyelids can develop due to an irritant or an allergy that comes in direct contact with the eyelids. This skin issue can affect the upper, lower or both eyelids on one or both sides. There is stinging or burning sensation, itching, the eyelids are scaly and red and sometimes swollen. The eyelids become thickened with skin markings. The thin skin of the eyelids is sensitive to allergens and irritants and susceptible to contact dermatitis since they are rubbed and touched using the hands.

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People suffering from contact dermatitis experiences itching and burning pain with red rashes and swelling that can last for days and heal without any treatment, but sometimes treatment is necessary.

Causes of contact dermatitis on the eyelids

  • Substances such as soaps, detergents, dust particles, acids and alkalis, hydrophobic substances such as molecules that repel water and cosmetics that are used for the eyes such as eyeliner, eye shadow, and mascara. Once these touch the eyelid or transferred from the fingers, they can cause contact dermatitis.
  • Chlorine that is present in the swimming pool
  • Temperatures such as heat or cold, humidity and mechanical factors such as rubbing or scratching can cause inflammatory changes in the eyelids.
  • A history of asthma
  • Airborne substances such as dust mites or pollen can cause allergic reaction of the eyelids when the immune system of the body is hypersensitive to these substances.
Contact dermatitis

People suffering from contact dermatitis experiences itching and burning pain with red rashes and swelling that can last for days and heal without any treatment, but sometimes treatment is necessary.

Treatment and home remedies of contact dermatitis on the eyelids

  • First, the individual has to identify the substance that triggered the inflammatory symptoms.
  • Avoid rubbing and scratching the affected area since this can worsen the condition and increase the risk of an infection.
  • Dip a small cloth in cold water and place it over the eyelids in order to lessen itching and irritation caused by an irritant or allergy. Another way is dip a small piece of cloth in cold milk and place it over the eyelid since this helps relax the burning and itching sensations.
  • Apply aloe vera gel on the affected eyelid to soothe the itchiness and for fast healing of the condition.
  • Place a slice of cucumber over the eyelids since this helps in minimizing itching, redness and burning sensation on the eyelids.
  • Take a prescribed steroid creams and antihistamines given by the doctor in order to minimize the symptoms.

Tips in preventing contact dermatitis of the eyelids-

  • Avoid substances that cause irritation of the skin or cause allergic reactions.
  • Wash the skin and any clothing in the body that has come in contact with an irritant or allergens.
  • Wear protective clothing or gloves like a face mask, goggles, and gloves that can shield a person from irritating substances.


August 7th, 2015 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Hemorrhoids)

Hemorrhoids which are also known as piles are swelling veins that are found in the anus and rectum that bleeds, burns and cause itchiness. There are internal and external hemorrhoids, but normally it is the external type that causes the symptoms. Hemorrhoids are caused by pressure on the veins that is due to excessive sitting, pregnancy and straining during bowel movement and also lifting heavy equipment, acute coughing and diarrhea. The veins found around the anus can stretch when pressure is applied and can bulge and swell.

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Causes of hemorrhoids

  • Sitting for long hours on the toilet
  • Chronic diarrhea or constipation
  • Straining during bowel movements
  • Being over weight
  • Anal intercourse
  • Diet that is low in fiber

Symptoms of hemorrhoids


There is pain and discomfort, itching or irritation in the anal area

  • There is swelling around the anus
  • There is painless bleeding during bowel movements
  • There is pain and discomfort, itching or irritation in the anal area
  • Presence of lump found near the anus which is very sensitive and painful
  • Feces are leaking

Treatment and home remedies

  • The individual should soak in a warm bath at least 15-20 minutes at 3-4 times every day in order to lessen the itching and burning sensation caused by hemorrhoids. Avoid adding any bath products to the water.
  • Pat the anus gently using white paper towel that is moistened with water or a cleansing agent such as Balneol after a bowel movement. Baby wipes and other pre-moistened towels such as Tucks or Preparation H can also be used for the affected area.
  • Avoid rubbing the affected area. Simply rinse off in a shower or on a bidet instead of wiping using a toilet paper, then gently pat the anal area dry using a soft absorbent towel or cloth.
  • Use soaps that do not contain any perfumes or dyes.
  • Place a sterilized ice pack on severely inflamed hemorrhoids several times every day for 15 minutes at a time, then follow this by placing a warm compress on the affected area for another 10-20 minutes since it helps in minimizing the swelling and lessen the burning sensation that can be felt.
  • Keep the affected area as dry as possible, sprinkle cornstarch or hypoallergenic fragrance-free baby powder on the anal area since it helps in absorbing moisture.
  • Take the prescribed over-the-counter pain medication such as ibuprofen, aspirin or acetaminophen since they help relieve the discomfort caused by the hemorrhoids.
  • Eat foods high that are high in fiber. These foods help in making the stool soft in order to avoid constipation as well as avoid soda, citrus foods, alcohol and caffeine.
  • Take a Sitz bath after a bowel movement. Soak in the bath for 15 minutes at a time. Just be careful if the water is very warm since it can burn the affected area.
  • Wear underwear that is made out of cotton in order to prevent the buildup of moisture that can irritate hemorrhoids.