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Treating chondromalacia patella syndrome

March 24th, 2017 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Treating chondromalacia patella syndrome)

Chondromalacia patella syndrome is the weakening and softening of the cartilage found in the underside of kneecap or patella. It can be caused by the improper alignment of the kneecap with the bone of the thigh. Knee pain due to irritation of the degenerated cartilage is called patellofemoral syndrome. Women are more susceptible to chondromalacia patella syndrome.

Causes of chondromalacia patella syndrome

  • Muscle imbalance which can be fixed with the right exercises.
  • Poor alignment of the kneecap where the patella is either too high or too low.
  • Overusing of the leg such as jumping, running and twisting

    Treating chondromalacia patella syndrome

    A grating or grinding sensation with leg movement.

  • Improper tracking of the kneecap or patella as it slides over the thigh bone or femur and result to degeneration of the cartilage under the kneecap and cause pain.
  • Abnormal patellar tracking toward the outer or lateral side of the femur
  • Females who are knock-kneed or flat-footed and deformities of the patellar undersurface are susceptible to chondromalacia patellar syndrome.


  • Severe knee pain
  • Severe pain when going downstairs
  • A grating or grinding sensation with leg movement
  • Tenderness of the kneecap
  • Unclear discomfort of the inner area of the knee due to jumping, running, descending stairs and climbing
  • Long periods of sitting with the knees slightly bent
  • Tightness or fullness of the knee area especially when the knee is swollen
  • Loss of quadriceps or thigh muscle strength and bulk and the legs becomes weak


  • Take plenty of rest especially the affected area for fast healing of the condition.
  • Apply an ice pack on the affected area for at least 10-15 minutes to lessen the pain and inflammation. Avoid applying the pack directly on the skin for more than 5 minutes to prevent further damage.
  • Take the prescribed over-the-counter medication to lessen the pain and inflammation.
  • Apply heat on the affected area using a heating pad at the lowest setting at least 10-20 minutes at a time to lessen the stiffness. Another alternative is to use a soft terry cloth face towel and soaked in warm tap water.
  • Wear a knee brace on the affected area to prevent unnecessary movement and keep the joint stable and secure.
  • Seek the help of a physical therapist for some rehabilitation exercises to restore range of motion in the affected knee and strengthening exercises and lessen the symptoms.
  • Minimize running and opt for gentle exercises such as cycling or swimming. If there is a need to run, wear the proper shoes that are well-cushioned and avoid running on hard surfaces such as concrete.


  • Maintain balance of the muscles by strengthening the quadriceps, hamstrings, abductors and adductors.
  • Avoid repeated stress on the kneecap by wearing kneepads to prevent further injury.

More Information

The details posted on this page on chondromalacia patella syndrome is for learning purposes only. To learn to recognize and manage knee joint conditions, enroll in a first aid course with one of our training providers.

Managing a spinal cord injury

March 17th, 2017 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Managing a spinal cord injury)

The spinal cord injury is considered dangerous due to the vital function of the area. The injury happens when there is injury to the spinal cord due to trauma, compression due to a tumor or infection and loss of normal supply of blood. These injuries can be complete or incomplete.

In a complete injury, it involves total loss of function of the muscles and sensation in the body beneath the level of the injury. As for an incomplete injury, there is still remaining function below the level of the injury. Both sides of the body are usually affected equally.

Injury to the upper area of spinal cord such as in the neck can result to quadriplegia where both arms and legs becomes paralyzed. As for injury in the lower back, it can result to paraplegia which is paralysis of both legs only.

Symptoms of spinal cord injury

  • Paralysis and loss of sensation
  • Shallow or irregular breathing
  • Loss of urinary or bowel control
  • Pain or severe stinging sensations
  • Exaggerated reflex actions or spasms

    Spinal cord injury

    Pain or severe stinging sensations is an indication of a spinal cord injury.


  • Stabbing or gunshot wounds to the spine
  • Falling from heights
  • Injuries in sports such as in football, diving, equestrian and rugby
  • People suffering from spinal stenosis have a high risk of injury to the spinal cord


  • Avoid moving the affected person. Keep the head, neck and back in proper alignment. Lay him/her on a flat surface and keep the person calm and still. Roll up towels and place them on side of the neck or hold the head and neck in place
  • If the person does not have a pulse, gently lift the jaw forward and perform chest compression.
  • A spinal injury in the upper neck area can result to loss of control in normal breathing and there is a need to use a breathing tube and ventilator. A breathing machine or mechanical ventilator helps with breathing and provides oxygen.
  • Wear a cervical collar or place the affected neck on a backboard to prevent unnecessary movements that can worsen the condition.
  • Take the prescribed dosage of steroid to lessen the swelling and inflammation.
  • Place the affected person in a traction or halo device placed around the head for stability of the spine and prevent further damage that can worsen the condition.
  • Some possible complications that can result from a spinal cord injury that needs to be treated immediately includes bowel incontinence or inability in controlling bowel movements, urinary tract infections or urinary incontinence, blood clots, pneumonia, chronic pain, pressure sores, depression and muscle spasms.
  • After the affected person is already stabilized, seek the help of a physical therapist for some rehabilitation exercises to restore normal mobility of the affected area through occupational and physical therapy and using assistive devices.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on a spinal cord injury is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize and manage head and back injuries by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Dealing with internal hemorrhoids

March 17th, 2017 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Dealing with internal hemorrhoids)

Internal hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed veins found in the anus and lower rectum. It is usually caused by constipation and worsens by straining during bowel movement. They do not usually cause pain but can lead to bleeding during bowel movement.

Sometimes, the internal hemorrhoids prolapse or protrude outside of the anus and can be seen or felt as moist pads of skin that looks pinker than the surrounding skin and can be gently pushed back into place.


  • Pain
  • Bleeding during bowel movements
  • Itching
  • Burning sensation in the affected area
  • Rectal discomfort

Causes of hemorrhoids

  • Pregnancy
  • Obesity
  • Straining on the toilet
  • Standing or sitting for long periods of time
  • Eating a low-fiber diet
  • Coughing and sneezing

    Internal hemorrhoids

    Drink plenty of water which is needed to prevent constipation that increase the risk for internal hemorrhoids.

  • Vomiting
  • Holding the breath while straining in performing physical labor


  • Drink plenty of water which is needed to prevent constipation that increase the risk for internal hemorrhoids. Avoid drinking caffeinated beverages and alcohol to prevent dehydration and cause constipation.
  • Eat fiber-rich foods for easy bowel movement. Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables and whole grains to increase the daily intake of fiber.
  • Keep the affected area clean by wiping it with cotton balls soaked in witch hazel to lessen the symptoms of internal hemorrhoids.
  • Apply hydrocortisone cream, aloe vera gel or a commercial hemorrhoid cream on the rectal area.
  • Take the prescribed pain medications such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen and aspirin to lessen the pain and discomfort.
  • When sitting, place a pillow on the chair to lessen the pain on the affected area.
  • Perform regular exercises regularly such as walking or biking to stimulate the digestive system and prevent constipation.
  • Avoid straining during bowel movements to prevent further damage and worsen the condition. Avoid sitting for long periods on the toilet, instead of sitting it is recommended to squat for easy passing out of bowel without straining.
  • Fill a tub with warm water and add a cup of Epsom salt. Mix well until salt is totally dissolved. Soak in the tub for at least 15-20 minutes. The Epsom salts clean and relaxes the itchy and inflamed tissue. Repeat this as often as possible.
  • Insert a suppository inside the anus to reduce the size of internal hemorrhoids by giving medicine at the base of the hemorrhoids in the rectum.
  • Sit on a cushion, if sitting on a hard surface for long periods of time to prevent pain. Another alternative is using a doughnut pillow.