Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Author Archives: Aris Eff

Health And Safety Tips For Volleyball Athletes

September 15th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Health And Safety Tips For Volleyball Athletes)

Just like any other sports, volleyball also has its fair share of injuries, in which players might fall victim to.  Injuries are very important to take into consideration because they are a big part of every athlete’s lives, so taking the necessary precautions is the first step to reducing the risk of injuries.

What Injuries Are Usually Suffered By Volleyball Players?

The basics of volleyball involve constant landing, diving, jumping and ball receiving, which mean that the common sites of injury are located in the knees, shoulders, lower back, legs, feet, arms, hands and fingers.  Because of the nature of the sports itself, ankles and knees also get a lot of overuse injury without proper coordination, exercise and body mechanics.

Valuable and Safety Tips For Volleyball Players

  • As we have said overuse injuries and ankle rolls are common injuries for volley ball players, because of the constant and high jumping they do. In order to protect them from this, volleyball players should have good support and padding on their shoes, which will act as the “shock” absorber. Proper landing is also necessary; landing on toes is more preferable than landing on both feet, because it reduces the impact of the jump. Ankle rolls, on the other hand, can be prevented by wrapping the ankles with bandage to provide additional support, strength and mobility. Check out this post for more information about overuse injuries.
  • Aside from ankles and the feet, other areas of constant injury are the shoulder blades and lower back, because of constant bending, twisting, and diving, as well as spiking, tossing and receiving of ball. Unlike overuse injuries, injuries involving back and shoulders can become long-term if not given proper attention and emergency care. The best way to avoid shoulder and back injuries is to perform warm-ups, strengthening and conditioning exercises prior to the start of the game. This will help stretch and add more flexibility to the muscles. Careful and proper practice of shots is also necessary to avoid shoulder injuries.
  • Finger injury is another type of injury that often haunts volleyball players. Finger injuries are common for players who are placed in the front line and whose primary role is to block the oncoming ball, regardless of the ball’s speed. Injuries associated with the fingers include dislocations, fractures, and ligament and tendon tears. Players usually tape two to three fingers so that these would receive equal impact and force from the ball, which make them less prone to injuries.

Always make sure that you understand how injuries can affect your performance and your entire sports life. Take precautions to avoid them, so you can have a better chance of staying within the competitive scene. Check out this site for more information about sports injury prevention.

Related Video On Volleyball Injuries:


“Preventing Volleyball Injuries.” Stop Sports Injuries. Retrieved online on September 9, 2014 from

“Avoid Volleyball’s Most Common Injuries.” About Sports. Retrieved online on September 9, 2014 from

Outdoor Emergencies – First Aid For Jellyfish Stings

September 14th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Poisons - (Comments Off on Outdoor Emergencies – First Aid For Jellyfish Stings)

Jellyfish underwater can be dangerous, especially when they group up together and start sneaking onto their victims. Although not all jellyfish species are dangerous, it is a common problem for divers and swimmers wading in salt waters. Jellyfish stings are not always life-threatening, but their tentacles can release thousands of venomous, minute barbs that cause a painful and reddish rash to the victims. There are even cases where the jellyfish sting cause illness and severe allergic reaction throughout the body.

Important Things To Do Immediately

  • Get Out Of The Water As Soon As Possible – There is always the likelihood that you will get stung again. Take note that jellyfish always swim in groups, so it is advisable to stay out of the water right away prior to treatment.
  • Call Emergency Assistance If Necessary – Jellyfish stings can be treated if the victim or someone with the victim has enough knowledge about treatment techniques. However, there are instances when professional medical help should be rendered to the victim. Call an ambulance if:
  1. The sting has covered half of or the entire arms, legs, torso, stomach, genitals or face.
  2. The sting has caused allergic reaction to the victim, such as nausea and vomiting, palpitations, dizziness, confusion, lightheadedness and shortness of breathing.
  • Neutralize The Pain and Stinging – The way to stop the stinging sensation is to wash the affected area with saltwater or seawater. In contrast, tap water or fresh water can just worsen the condition by reactivating the stinging cells.
  • Remove The Tentacles After Washing – Recommendations from the Red Cross state that washing with vinegar and soaking the affected area with hot water for a couple of seconds could lessen the pain before removal of the sting. Tip: The warmest temperature is the actual temperature that can be tolerated by the victim, so let the victim test the water first to avoid scalds. Do not attempt to remove the tentacles with bare hands. Always use protective measures when doing this so that the sting will not likely affect other parts of your body, especially your hands.
  • Treatments For Less Severe Cases – For stings that are less painful, you can treat it with ice pack application as well as with OTC pain relievers. If necessary, you can also treat it with antibiotics.
  • Antihistamines Can Also Help – If the sting causes itchiness and reddish spots, you can help relieve it with topical antihistamines along with ice packs, and pain relievers.

Knowing some important basic first aid skills can help you during accidental outdoor emergencies. Learn more about first aid tips from


Related Video On Jellyfish Stings:


“How To Treat Jellyfish Stings.” WikiHow. Retrieved online on September 9, 2014 from

“Jellyfish Stings.” Mayo Clinic. Retrieved online on September 9, 2014 from

Overuse Injuries – What Are They And How Are They Treated And Prevented?

August 23rd, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in First Aid Injury Assessment | Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on Overuse Injuries – What Are They And How Are They Treated And Prevented?)

Background to Overuse Injuries

From the term itself, overuse injuries mean that certain types of injuries are sustained from repetitive activities or actions. This is different from acute injuries that could happen because of an instant traumatic event. In contrast, overuse injuries are injuries that occur more subtly and develop over time. This means that the two basic types of injuries are acute and overuse.

With respect to overuse injuries, the kind of trauma received by a specific body part results from repetitive actions, but the most common sites of injury are the muscles, bones and tendons of the arms, wrists, ankles, legs and thighs.  Because of its repetitive action, overuse injuries are common among athletes engaged in various activities and contact sports.

What Is The Science Behind Overuse Injuries?

Physiologically speaking, the body has the tendency to adapt to tremendous physical stress. There are many benefits associated with this adaptation – exercise, for example, can make the muscles, ligaments, tendons, joints and bones more functional, more flexible and stronger. This adaptation happens because of the process known as ‘remodeling.” But remodeling does not only involve the build-up of tissues, because improper use of the body structures can result to tissue breakdown. Thus, there should be a clear balance between tissue break down and build-up, and if break down occurs more rapidly than build-up it results to damage, such as overuse injury and acute injury.

Overuse Injury can occur as a result of forcing the body to work more than it can handle, resulting in stress and imbalance.

Overuse Injury can occur as a result of forcing the body to work more than it can handle, resulting in stress and imbalance.

How Does Overuse Injury Occur?

Too much use of muscles, bones and other body structures for a prolonged period of time without proper training and condition can result to physical stress. If, for example, a person starts to play tennis for the first time, and he continues for several hours without proper conditioning and training, it can strain his muscles and end up in an overuse injury. This happens because that person is trying to stress his body, not allowing the muscles to fully recover from the stress. As beginners, it is very important to have basic knowledge about the sport and proper technique when executing movements.

How Can Overuse Injury Be Prevented?

Training and conditioning are keys to prevention. Overuse injuries can be prevented with proper use of muscles and execution of movements. It is important to give the body some time to recover after performing sports or other training programs and activities. Consulting the doctor or sports medicine provider could also help you have a well-laid training program.

Related Video On Overuse Injury:


“Overuse Injuries.” Physioworks. Retrieved online on August 18, 2014 from

“Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries.” Retrieved online on August 18, 2014 from


Blood Pressure Basics – Your Numbers and Readings

August 23rd, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Being Prepared | Circulatory Emergency - (Comments Off on Blood Pressure Basics – Your Numbers and Readings)

Understanding an individual’s blood pressure readings might seem complicated at a first glance, but it’s not. All you need to do is to familiarize what the upper and lower number means what these two indicate. By understanding what these readings mean, you can identify if a person is having a low or high blood pressure, as well as if a person’s blood pressure is within the healthy range or not.

What Does The Top Number Indicate?

Systolic is the number located at the top of a blood pressure reading. Systolic number is created by the force of the blood pushed from the heart through the different parts of the body. The normal systolic number is 120 and below. When this number increases more than 120, the person is likely at risk of having different forms of hypertension – a systolic that reaches 121 to 139 means that the person has pre-hypertension; systolic reading of 140 to 159 is considered as stage I hypertension; and systolic of 160 and above is called as stage II hypertension.

What Does the Lower Number Indicate?

Diastolic is the number at the bottom of the reading. Diastolic pressure is created by the arterial pressure that happens when the heart is at rest in between beats. The normal diastolic pressure is 80 and below. If the systolic reaches 81 to 89, it is considered pre-hypertension, but if it goes beyond 89, it is already considered as high blood pressure or hypertension.

Should you worry if your blood pressure reaches pre-hypertension?

Pre-hypertension, or the systolic between 121 and 139 and diastolic between 81 and 89, is a red flag for high blood pressure or hypertension. Although pre-hypertension is not technically a high blood pressure, if you are not going to maintain a healthy lifestyle, you are likely to end up having high blood pressure eventually. Basically, pre-hypertension should serve as a warning sign that you should start taking up healthy lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise.

If your blood pressure is normal, however, it does not mean that you should not engage in healthy lifestyle. As a matter of fact, adopting to or maintaining a healthy lifestyle is a must for adults, because it can likely delay or prevent the onset of hypertension, as well as other health problems related to high blood pressure, such as diabetes and kidney diseases.

Related Video on Blood Pressure Reading:


“Blood Pressure Chart.” Mayo Clinic. Retrieved online on August 14, 2014 from

“Understanding Blood Pressure Readings.” American Heart Association. Retrieved online on August 14, 2014 from

Cardiac Health Conditions – Heart Attack

August 23rd, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Circulatory Emergency - (Comments Off on Cardiac Health Conditions – Heart Attack)

Some are sudden and intense, while others are mild and slow – heart attacks come in various types and intensity, but most of them can be life-threatening if not given proper medical attention. Every year, many men and women die from the disease, making it one of the most common causes of deaths among adults.


How Does Heart Attack Happen?

Cardiac muscles need oxygen to function and survive. During a heart attack, the oxygen supply provided by the blood does not reach the cardiac muscles, because the pathway is severely obstructed by a plaque. These plaques are the result of too much fat and cholesterol accumulation in the arteries that, in the long run, cause obstruction in the blood pathway. Although this process is a long one, too much accumulation of plaque can eventually wear off in the arteries and this can clog in the blood supply of the cardiac muscles. Subsequently, the cardiac muscles become starved or deprived of oxygen and other important nutrients transported by the arteries. This is condition is known as ischemia. When ischemia causes damaged to a part of the heart or the cardiac muscles, it can result to myocardial infarction, which is more commonly known as heart attack.

Warning Signs of a Heart Attack

The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort that lasts more than 5 to 10 minutes. Sometimes, though, the pain disappears and comes back intermittently. The kind of pain usually felt by patients include a squeezing sensation followed by shortness of breathing. Victims cannot usually go deep breathing, because the pain becomes more severe. Other common symptoms include pain or discomfort in one or both arms, stomach, back and jaw, lightheadedness, nausea, and cold clammy skin.

Important Questions to Ponder:

Can it Permanently Injure the Heart – Heart attack can cause injury to the heart muscle, which can eventually lead to death if not given prompt treatment. But the injury can be reverted as long as management and treatment is started early. The injury may depend on the depth and severity of the affected heart muscles, which means that the healing process can be slow or fast. The length of healing time, therefore, depends on the extent of the injury.

Other Possible Causes Aside from Blockage – Even though there are no blockages in the arteries, heart attack can still occur as a result of the arteries contracting or going into spasms. When this happens, the blood pathway narrows down, decreasing the blood flow going to and from the heart.

Related Video on Heart Attack:


“Heart Attack.” American Heart Association. Retrieved online on August 14, 2014 from

“Warning Signs of Heart Attack, Stroke & Cardiac Arrest.”  American Heart Association. Retrieved online on August 14, 2014 from


Common Types of Skin Rashes

August 23rd, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Common Types of Skin Rashes)

What You Should Know About Skin Rashes

A skin rash is not a medical diagnosis. It is rather a term used to identify the outbreak or development of discoloration and inflammation on the skin, changing the skin’s overall appearance. There are a wide range of rashes – some are infectious, some can cause fever, and some may last shorter than the others.

Listed below are some of the most common forms of skin rashes:

  • Atopic dermatitis – Often called as eczema, atopic dermatitis is a skin rash usually developed during childhood. It produces most and itchy rashes on skin folds, such as the neck, ankles, wrists, on the inner portions of the elbows, and at the back of the knee. Children who have allergies and asthma are more susceptible to developing atopic dermatitis.
  • Seborrheic dermatitis – Unlike atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis is more common among adults. This rash produces itchy and scaly lesions on the scalp, cheeks, eyebrows, forehead and outer ear. Exposure to sunlight is one cause of seborrheic dermatitis.
  • Contact dermatitis – This kind of rash usually develop when exposed to certain objects with chemical contents to which the patient is allergic. Contact dermatitis irritates the part of the skin that had been exposed or had come in direct contact with the object. The characteristic of the rash is oozy, moist, reddish and usually itchy.
  • Psoriasis – This rash is caused by infection and produces dry and scaly bumps, unlike the different kinds of dermatitis that are moist and oozy. The dry scale usually become flake in the long run until it falls off. Common areas affected by psoriasis include the knees, elbows, scalp and feet.
  • Diaper rash – another common type of rash among infants is the diaper rash. This develops when the sensitive skin of the baby is in contact with diapers (filled with feces or urine) for a long period of time. The swelling and reddish rash is painful and warm to touch. The older adult population may also be susceptible to diaper rash if they are wearing adult diapers for long periods.
  • Heat rash – Heat rash produces skin eruptions that are swollen, reddish, painful and warm to touch. This usually happens when the person is exposed to extremely hot temperatures or direct sunlight. Common sites of heat rash are the upper chest, around the neck, elbow skin folds, and groins. As a preventive measure, the person is usually removed from a hot environment to a cooler place.

Related Video on Skin Rashes:


“Psoriasis Self-Care.” My Doctor. Retrieved online on August 18, 2014 from

“How are common skin rash diagnosed?” Medicine Net. Retrieved online on August 18, 2014 from

What Is Frost Bite And How Do You Treat It?

August 23rd, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on What Is Frost Bite And How Do You Treat It?)

How Does Frostbite Occur?

Frostbite happens when the tissues in the body freeze, because of the contraction of blood vessels which reduce the flow of oxygen and blood to and from the different parts of the body. This condition usually happens when a person is exposed to extreme cold, making the underlying tissues and skin freeze. The commonly affected areas of frostbite are the ones that are usually exposed to direct cold temperature, such as the hands, ears, nose and even feet.

What Are The Signs And Symptoms of Frostbite?

If, for instance, you have been exposed to cold temperature for a long period of time and you notice that your skin changes color into yellowish-gray, very cold to touch, and has a waxy and hard surface, you may be having a frostbite. As frostbite becomes severe, there may be a numbing, itching or burning sensation on the affected part. In the long run, the frostbitten skin will harden and become blistered. When the frostbite finally thaws, the skin becomes painful, red and inflamed. In some cases of frostbite, however, the blood flow can be permanently cut, damaging not only the skin, but also the muscles, blood vessels, nerves and bones.  This can result in permanent tissue death and the affected site may be amputated accordingly.

Frostbite First Aid Tips

It is very important to assess the degree of frostbite to be able to determine the kind of first aid to be given.

If symptoms of frostbite are noticed during its early stage, it can easily be treated by gradually warming the affected area.

Frostbite can also be prevented by wearing thick clothing, gloves, as well as head and ear protection when going outdoors during extremely cold weather. Protection is the key to preventing frostbite from advancing further – never touch cold objects against the frostbitten skin.  Stay indoors if possible, especially if you notice that some parts of your skin have frostbites.

On the other hand, if the frostbite is severe it is necessary to call emergency assistance as soon as possible. If the victim is wet, remove clothes and replace with dry ones. Although it is important to gradually warm the victim, it is not advisable to place the frostbitten part in direct heat or hot water, as it can cause further injuries or burns even if the skin feels numb.

Avoid further damage to the tissues by reducing mobility. Do not walk if the feet or toes are frostbitten. If the digits (fingers and toes) are frostbitten, keep the skin separated from each other by placing clean, dry cloth in between them.

Related Video on Frostbite First Aid:


“Stages of Frostbite.” Mayo Clinic. Retrieved online on August 17, 2014 from

“Frostbite: First Aid.” Mayo Clinic. Retrieved online on August 17, 2014 from

Fire Safety Tips – What is “Stop, Drop and Roll?”

August 4th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Fire Safety Tips – What is “Stop, Drop and Roll?”)

Background of the “Stop, Drop and Roll”

As part of the practical fire safety prevention, the term “stop, drop and roll” became one of the most commonly taught fire safety procedures taught to industrial workers, household, and children at school. But most importantly, this is also a major component health and safety technique taught to emergency service personnel.

The main goal of the Stop, Drop and Roll is to extinguish a fire off of an individual’s hair or clothes without the use of some traditional firefighting equipment like fire extinguisher. It is considered as a psychological tool when effectively utilized, because it could help increase awareness of the people on how to properly extinguish fire during emergency situations, thereby, decreasing panics that could disorient a person and make him/her more prone to injuries or burns. This is particularly helpful for children at school and for industrial workers working at hazardous factories.

How is the “Stop, Drop and Roll” performed?

From the title itself, this technique is performed in three steps.

  • Stop – First, the victim needs to stop. Staying still and avoiding any movements can help avoid flames from further scattering on the affected part of the body. It could also help any nearby standers put the fire out more easily.
  • Drop – If in case there are no bystanders around, the victim must drop on the ground. The best position is to lie down the ground, covering the face and upper bodies to avoid possible facial burns or injuries.
  • Roll – the final procedure is to roll on the surface in order to extinguish the fire. The rationale for doing this is for the fire to become deprived of oxygen, making it easier to put out. If in case the victim is nearby a cloth, rug or other things that could be used to cover the fire-affected part of the body, they can cover themselves with it while rolling for faster results.

Additional helpful firefighting tips:

  • The effectiveness of the Stop, Drop and Roll procedure could be further enhanced if it is combined with other firefighting techniques, such as using a fire extinguisher, placing a damp cloth on the site of the fire, or patting the fire with any materials.
  • Remember that the burnt clothes can still cause injuries to the skin, so it is recommended to remove burnt clothes before they do additional damage to the body.
  • If in case the burn has injured the skin or any other part of the body, it is necessary to call for emergency assistance as soon as possible.


Performing this simple technique can help save someone’s life. Learn more important life-saving techniques by enrolling in a first aid course. Check this site for more information.

Related Video about Stop Drop and Roll:



“Stop Drop and Roll.” First Aid. Retrieved online on July 29, 2014 from

“Know when to Stop Drop and Roll.” National Fire Protection Association. Retrieved online on July 29, 2014 from


Difference Between Incisions And Lacerations

August 4th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Difference Between Incisions And Lacerations)

Any type of injury on the skin is considered as a wound. They can be classified as open and closed. Open wounds are usually the ones that make the skin torn or broken. Closed wounds, on the other hand, have fewer categories, but they are just as injurious as open wounds; these include hematomas and crush injuries. Open wounds have five categories, incisions, lacerations, abrasions, contusions and punctured wounds.

Among these, the most commonly confused wounds are lacerations and incisions, because both of them make a cut to the skin. But the severity and intent of the cut is what makes the two different from each other. Let us take a look at how lacerations and incisions differ from each other.

What is a laceration?

Laceration is a type of wound that happens when the soft tissue in the body are torn. As a result, they are often jagged or irregular in size and shape. They are usually produced by some kind of blunt trauma to the skin. Because lacerations are produced by whatever object that caused the cut, the wound is usually contaminated with debris or bacteria.

What is an incision?

In comparison to laceration, an incised wound is caused by a sharp-edged object, such as a razor or a knife. This means that the size and shape of the wound are usually regular and the wound itself is smooth and neat unlike lacerations. Although incisions could happen as a result of a knife or glass shard accidents, they could also happen from purposeful opening of the skin, such as when a surgeon needs to perform open surgeries. This means that incised wounds can be both clean and contaminated, depending on the nature of the cut.

Which type of wound heals faster?

Incisions and lacerations both take some time to heal. But an incised wound heals faster than a lacerated wound. This is because lacerations are jagged, while incisions are regular in shape. Also, the smoothness and straightness of cuts in incisions produces fewer scars than a lacerated wound.

Additional note: remember to keep your wounds clean

Whether you have a laceration or incision, treating that cut is very important to avoid contamination, which could eventually lead to infection.

Always practice proper hand washing before cleaning the wound.

Applying sterile dressing on an incision is one way to prevent contamination.

Applying sterile dressing on an incision is one way to prevent contamination.

Keep in mind that wounds heal normally. Surgical wounds, however, may heal slower unless the wound dressings are changed regularly and the incision site is often checked for any contamination.









Check out this site for more standard first aid tips and techniques for bleeding wounds.

Related Video on Wound Cleaning:


“Lacerations versus puncture wound.” Medline Plus. Retrieved online on July 30, 2014 from

“Five Types of Wound.” LIVESTRONG.Com. Retrieved online on July 30, 2014 from


Natural ways to deal with pain

July 24th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Uncategorized - (Comments Off on Natural ways to deal with pain)

Consider this scenario: you are in dire pain, and your prescribed pain relievers just won’t do any good. Other pain medications have side effects on your stomach and you very wary of taking stronger doses. You are not the only suffering from chronic pain, because almost everyone had been into this. Chronic pain may result from a wide range of factors, such as stress and certain medical conditions. Pain medications are the usual prescription drugs given for pain, but there are also some natural ways to deal with chronic pain.

Remember that these are just some of the ideas that experts usually advise to try out and their effectiveness may vary from one person to another. The good thing about this is that once you become used to these natural alternatives, you will less likely become dependent on pain relievers.

Some natural ways to manage pain:

  • Massage – This is a simple yet effective way to relax tensed muscles in the body, as well as relieve pain. Therapeutic massage helps the blood flow smoothly, naturally healing and nourishing the body in the process. A high quality massage can also help release endorphins, a type of hormone that acts as the body’s pain relieving and controlling substance.
  • Deep breathing exercises – If you get tensed, and you feel that your pain is escalating, you might become agitated. This could further increase your stress level and contribute to the overall pain you are suffering from. You need to relax and do some deep breathing techniques in order to help ease your tension and regulate your heart beat. Once you feel calm again, you will notice that your pain is slowly declining, as well.
  • Yoga and meditation – These two techniques are some of the natural ways to control pain with the help of relaxation and the ability of the mind to change pain thoughts into reconstructive thoughts.
  • Exercise regularly – Exercise is the natural way to keep your blood pumping and your heart beating healthily. When you exercise, your body becomes physically active, which help release endorphins to help deal with pain. Endorphins are the body’s natural pain relievers, which act by blocking pain signals from reaching the brain. This, in turn, could alleviate depression, stress, anxiety and other factors that likely contribute to chronic pain.

Regular exercise can help alleviate pain, stress, anxiety and many more.

  • Progressive relaxation – With guided supervision from a professional, this form of therapy helps patients lower stress and pain levels by focusing on the thoughts, things and other imagery that help them feel better.

Important note: these are just some of the most common suggestions for pain management, but it is still important to consult your doctor to know if any of the following techniques is applicable to you.








“8 Surprising (and natural) ways to beat pain.” Prevention. Retrieved online on July 23, 2014 from

“Exercise and back pain.” Spine Health. Retrieved online on July 23, 2014 from

Call Now Button