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Cardiogenic shock

May 22nd, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Circulatory Emergency - (Comments Off on Cardiogenic shock)

Cardiogenic shock is a potentially life-threatening condition where your heart suddenly cannot pump enough blood to meet your body’s needs. This condition is mostly caused by a severe type of heart attack, but not everyone who suffers from a heart attack experiences a cardiogenic shock.

Cardiogenic shock is a rare condition, but it is often deadly if not treated promptly.

Signs and symptoms of cardiogenic shock:

  • Sudden, rapid heartbeat
  • Weak pulse
  • Low blood pressure
  • Rapid breathing
  • Severe shortness of breath
  • Pale skin

    Cardiogenic shock

    This condition is mostly caused by a severe type of heart attack, but not everyone who suffers from a heart attack experiences a cardiogenic shock.

  • Loss of consciousness
  • Sweating
  • Cold hands or feet
  • Less urine than normal or none

Since it usually arises among those who are experiencing a severe heart attack, it’s also vital to know the symptoms of a heart attack such as:

  • A feeling of pressure, fullness, or squeezing pain in the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes
  • Pain that extends to your shoulders, one or both arms, back, and even to your jaw and teeth
  • Increasing episodes of chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Sudden dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting

You should seek medical care immediately if you start developing any of these signs or symptoms to decrease your risk of developing a cardiogenic shock.

When to see a doctor

You should see a doctor immediately if you experience any of these symptoms as getting a heart attack treatment will quickly improve your chances of survival and minimizes damage to your heart. Call 911 immediately or any other emergency medical services for help if you or anyone experience symptoms similar to a heart attack.

Causes of cardiogenic shock

In most cases of cardiogenic shock, it occurs because of a lack of oxygen to the heart, which is usually caused by a heart attack damages the heart’s main pumping chamber, the left ventricle. Without any oxygen-rich blood that is circulating in that area of the heart, the heart muscles can weaken and can go into cardiogenic shock.

In rare cases, any damage to the heart’s right ventricle, which is responsible for sending deoxygenated blood to your lungs to receive oxygen, can lead to a cardiogenic shock.

Other reasons that could cause a cardiogenic shock include:

  • A condition named as myocarditis, where the heart muscles are inflamed
  • A condition named endocarditis, where the heart valves have an infection
  • A weakened heart from any cause
  • Drug overdose or poisoning with substances that affect the heart’s ability to pump blood

Risk factors that contribute to cardiogenic shock

  • You are female
  • An older age
  • A previous history or experience of heart failure or heart attack
  • A blockage in several main arteries of the heart
  • Diabetes or high blood pressure

Chilblains

May 22nd, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Chilblains)

Chilblains are the condition where the presence of small, itchy swellings on the skin occurs as a reaction due to exposure to cold temperatures. The extremities, such as the toes, fingers, heels, ears, and nose are often affected by this condition. This condition mostly brings discomfort only and rarely causes any permanent damage. Chilblains usually heal within a few weeks if any further exposure to the cold is stopped.

Signs and symptoms of chilblains

The symptoms of chilblains usually manifest several hours after contact to the cold.

  • A burning and itching feeling in the affected area that can become more severe if moving to a warm room
  • Swelling of the affected area
  • Discoloration of the affected area to a reddish or bluish color
  • In severe cases of chilblains, the skin may break, and sores or blisters may develop

    Chilblains

    A burning and itching feeling in the affected area that can become more severe if moving to a warm room.

It is important that you should not scratch the skin as it can tear the skin easily and become infected from the break.

When to see a doctor?

Most people who have chilblains don’t need to seek medical attention as it usually heals within a few weeks and doesn’t cause any permanent problems. However, seek medical attention when:

  • You experience severe or recurring chilblains
  • Symptoms fail to improve within a few weeks
  • Swelling accompanied by pus formation in the affected area
  • Feeling generally unwell
  • A fever with temperatures of 100.4°F (38°C)
  • Swollen glands

What causes chilblains?

The reason is not exactly known but is believed to be an abnormal response of the body when exposed to the cold then followed by rewarming in some people. Rewarming of cold skin can cause the small blood vessels under the skin to expand more quickly than the nearby larger blood vessels. When this happens too quickly, the blood vessels near the surface of the skin can’t always handle the sudden increase of blood flow causing the blood to seep into the surrounding tissue which causes the swelling and itchiness.

Risk factors that increase chances of chilblains

  • Tight clothing or clothing that exposes skin to the cold.
  • Being female and the weight of the person.
  • The environment and the season.
  • Having poor circulation.
  • Having been diagnosed with a condition named Raynaud’s disease.

More Information

The details posted on this page on chilblains is for learning purposes only. To learn to recognize and manage – enroll in a first aid course with one of our training providers.

Bed bug bites

May 21st, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Bed bug bites)

Bed bug bites are caused by small, flattened insects in oval shape that are reddish-brown in color and can range from the size of 1 to 7 millimeters. Bed bugs can sneak their way into your bed, furniture, and even your carpet. These insects feed on blood from humans or animals and are mostly active at night where they feed on their victims while they sleep. By the next morning, you’re left with a mysterious bite that is red and itchy.

What does a bed bug bite look like?

Some people will not have a reaction to bed bug bites at all. But to those people who experience a reaction to bed bug bites will have one or more symptoms like these:

  • A bite or multiple bites that left a red, swollen area with a dark red center
  • Multiple bites that are lined or grouped together in a small area

    Bed bug bites

    A bite or multiple bites that left a red, swollen area with a dark red center.

  • Presence of blisters or hives at the site of the bite(s)

Bed bug bites can happen anywhere in the body but are more commonly found in exposed areas of the skin while you sleep, such as the face, arms, hands, and legs.

Signs and symptoms of a bed bug bite:

Note that these bites will not always arise right after you’ve been bitten, sometimes they can take multiple days to begin triggering any symptoms. Bed bugs don’t come out every night to feed and go through several days without eating.

  • The sudden appearance of red, swollen areas on your skin
  • Itchiness
  • A burning sensation

It is important not to scratch the bites as you may damage the skin and cause an infection which will lead the bite to swell and bleed.

How to treat bed bug bites

Bed bug bites pose no threat to most people and are just a nuisance. These bites have symptoms that typically disappear within a week or two. The itching caused by the bite can be eased by using an anti-itching cream to keep yourself from scratching the bite. An antihistamine can also help reduce the itching. Ice packs can be used to numb the skin which can help you reduce your urge to scratch. If there is an infection on the bite, you can apply an antiseptic cream or lotion.

If you do find bed bugs in your home, you should call your landlord or a pest control company to get your house cleaned from bed bugs. It is difficult to remove bed bugs and you may prolong infestation if you don’t get professional help. Bed bugs in your home can hide for several months without feeding, so therefore the help of a professional can help you surely get rid of the bed bugs completely.

ACL Injury

May 21st, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on ACL Injury)

An ACL injury is a condition where there is a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, a major ligament in the knee. This kind of injury is common to those who play sports that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or jumping – such as basketball, football, soccer, tennis, volleyball, and gymnastics.

People who get an ACL injury often hear or feel a “pop” in their knee accompanied by swelling, a feeling of instability and pain that becomes unbearable when bearing weight on the injured leg.

The treatment for an ACL injury depends on the severity of the injury. The treatment may include rest and a rehabilitation regimen to restore strength and stability back or surgery to replace the damaged ligament followed by a rehabilitation program.

Signs and symptoms of an ACL injury:

  • A loud “pop” sound or “popping” sensation in the injured knee

    ACL Injury

    Severe knee pain which prevents you from continuing what you were doing.

  • Severe knee pain which prevents you from continuing what you were doing
  • Swelling
  • Loss of range of motion
  • Instability or a sensation of “giving away” when bearing weight on the injured leg

What causes an ACL injury?

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the two ligaments that cross in the middle of the knee which connects your femur to your tibia and helps stabilize your knee joint. Most of the ACL injuries occur during sports or fitness activities that put a lot of stress on the knee, examples are:

  • Abruptly slowing down and changing directions
  • Turning with your foot firmly fixed on the ground
  • Landing from a jump erroneously
  • Abrupt stopping motion
  • Sustaining a direct strike or heavy force to the knee, such as a collision

More Information

The details posted on this page on ACL injury is for learning purposes only. To learn to recognize and manage – enroll in a first aid course with one of our training providers.

Dealing with hammertoes

May 15th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Dealing with hammertoes)

Hammertoes is a common deformity of the 2nd, 3rd or 4th toe. It is caused by wearing narrow shoes with no arch support. This condition causes severe foot pain. The toe has an abnormal bend in the middle joint that looks like a hammer. It is due to an imbalance in the surrounding muscles, ligaments and tendons that normally make the toe straighten and bend. If the condition is left untreated, they will become permanent and needs surgery to correct them.

Types of hammertoes

  • Flexible hammer toes – the toes can still move at the joint.
  • Rigid hammer toes – the tendons and toe become rigid, they press the joint and becomes misaligned. There is difficulty moving the toe.

Causes

  • Wearing certain type of shoes such as high heels or too tight and forces the toe in a flexed position. Wearing type of shoes, the toes will not be straightened even when barefoot.
  • Women are more susceptible to this condition than with men.
  • Broken toe has the high risk of developing hammertoe.

    hammertoes

    Pain in the toe, especially when moving it or wearing shoes.

  • Risk of developing hammertoe increases as the person ages.
  • The second toe is longer than the big toe
  • Condition such as diabetes or arthritis
  • Hereditary and run in families

Symptoms

  • Swelling, redness or a burning sensations in the affected area
  • Pain in the toe, especially when moving it or wearing shoes
  • Formation of calluses and corn above the middle joint of the hammer toe
  • Incapable to straighten the toe
  • A sore can develop on the toe in severe cases
  • Pain on the ball of foot under the affected toe

Treatment

  • Massage the affected toe to lessen the pain.
  • Apply ice compress on the affected area to lessen the pain and the swelling. Wrap ice pack in a towel before placing on the area to prevent further irritation and worsen the condition.
  • Prescribed medications to lessen the inflammation, the swelling and the pain.
  • Treat calluses and corns that form above the hammer toe using a pumice stone or file to reduce the size of the callus and corn after taking a warm bath. Apply emollients or moisturizers to make it soft and pliable. Another alternative is placing silicone or moleskin padding above the affected toe when wearing shoes.
  • Wear shoes that are high and wide across the toe at least 1.5 cm of space between the longest toe and the tip of the shoe.
  • Avoid high heel shoes higher than 5 cm.
  • Wear the appropriate shoe for any type of activity being performed.
  • Prescribed cortisone injections to relieve of severe pain and inflammation.

Tips

  • Wear low heel shoes to prevent unnatural position of the feet and usually bend the toes.
  • Avoid pointy-toed shoes
  • Wear shoes with adjustable straps and laces and proper arch support for the feet to prevent ailments of the feet.

Remedies for mosquito bites on babies

May 14th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Remedies for mosquito bites on babies)

Mosquito bites on babies are itchy bumps that forms after mosquitoes puncture the skin and feed on the blood. It usually disappears in a few days. Sometimes, it can result to severe swelling, soreness and redness and this type of reaction is called skeeter syndrome.

Bites from mosquitoes carry viruses or parasites that cause severe illness such as malaria, yellow fever and infection of the brain or encephalitis.

A baby can be bitten by mosquitoes while playing outdoors and usually affects the necks, ankles, hands and the face. It causes swelling and severe itching. Bites can cause serious disease on the baby. Babies are easy preys of mosquitoes and not aware how to deal with them.

Causes of mosquito bites on babies

  • Exposed areas of the body of the babies which are not covered with clothing.
  • Stagnant bodies of water, flower vases and decorative petal pans with water are breeding areas of the mosquitoes.
  • Uncovered garbage cans
  • Uncovered food which easily attracts mosquitoes and other insects
  • Dirty kitchen

    mosquito bites

    A baby can be bitten by mosquitoes while playing outdoors and usually affects the necks, ankles, hands and the face. It causes swelling and severe itching.

  • Watering plant during evening
  • Sweat on babies attracts mosquitoes due to its warmth and smell
  • Perfumed cream and lotions applied on the skin of babies

Symptoms

  • Small red bump
  • Large area of swelling on the skin
  • An elevated area with white center and a red dot
  • Dark spots forms that looks like a bruise in a day or two after the bite
  • Scratching of the skin indicates itchiness
  • Mild fever
  • Swelling lymph nodes
  • Hives

Treatment

  • Apply cold compress on the bitten area to lessen the swelling and the pain. Soak a clean washcloth in cold water, wring out excess water and then place it on the area. Another alternative is applying a deodorant with aluminum chloride to lessen the itchiness and the size of the bite.
  • Apply calamine lotion on the bite to lessen the itchiness of the area.
  • Cut fingernails of the baby to avoid scratching the bite and prevent development of infections and worsen the condition.
  • Apply prescribed over-the-counter antihistamine creams to lessen the itchiness and the swelling.
  • Crush 1-2 tablets of aspirin. Add a few drops of water, mix them until it becomes the consistency of a paste and then apply it to the affected area. Aspirin has acetyl acids which is rich in anti-inflammatory properties that prevent development of infections.
  • Prescribed 1 %hydrocortisone cream or gel applied to the bitten area at least 4 times every day.
  • Dissolve 1 teaspoon of baking soda in a cup of water. Mix them well and soak a clean washcloth in the solution and place it directly on the bitten area and leave it on for at least 10-15 minutes to lessen the itchiness and restore the normal pH level of the skin.
  • Make a salt paste by mixing sea salt with a few drops of water. Mix them well until it becomes a paste and then apply it directly on the affected area to stop itchiness.

Elbow hyperextension injury

May 14th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Elbow hyperextension injury)

Elbow hyperextension injury happens when the elbow is bent beyond the normal range of movement and damages the bones, ligaments and other structures of the elbow. Injuries can be caused by performing strenuous exercises such as playing sports and falling with outstretched arm.

Symptoms of elbow hyperextension

  • Swelling of the affected area
  • Pain in the anterior area of the elbow
  • Severe pain when extending the arm
  • Numbness of the affected area
  • The biceps contracts and there is pain and difficulty to straighten the arm.
  • Pain when touching the elbow

    Elbow hyperextension injury

    Take plenty of rest. Avoid activities such as extending and flexing the elbows for fast healing of the condition. Avoid drinking alcohol to prevent swelling and delays the healing.

  • Stiffness of the elbow and arm
  • Loss of strength of the elbow and arm
  • Muscle spasms in the biceps when straightening the arm
  • The affected area is red and blotchy
  • Deformity of the elbow
  • Problems with blood circulation in the elbow and hand

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest. Avoid activities such as extending and flexing the elbows for fast healing of the condition. Avoid drinking alcohol to prevent swelling and delays the healing.
  • Icing the affected area to relieve of the swelling and the pain. Put few ice cubes in a plastic bag and wrap it in a towel before placing to the area for at least 10-20 minutes at a time every hour after the injury. Another alternative is using an ice pack is also good for the condition.
  • Compress the area using an ACE elastic bandage, wrapped around the injured elbow to prevent unnecessary movements and for fast healing. It also stops and relieve of the swelling and pain. Avoid wrapping it too tight to prevent problems with circulation. If the area under the wrap causes pain and numbness loosen the wrap.
  • Elbow brace to immobilize the elbow and prevent unnecessary movements and for proper healing of the affected area.
  • Pain medications to relieve of the pain and the swelling.
  • Elevate the elbow above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling. When lying down, place the elbow in couple of pillows to keep it elevated. When sitting down put the affected elbow in a sling.
  • When pain starts to subside and capable of moving the elbow, perform gentle rehabilitation exercises with the help of the physical therapist for fast healing, lessen the pain and restore range of movement of the affected elbow.

Tips

  • Maintain proper form when playing contact sports or performing strenuous physical activities with the help of a qualified coach or instructor.
  • Avoid heat for at least 3 days such as hot baths, saunas and hot pads while in the healing stage.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol prevent the risk of bleeding and worsen the condition and delays the healing.
  • Avoid massage for 3 days to prevent further irritations.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on elbow hyperextension injury is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the indications and how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Remedies for stomach cramps

May 8th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Remedies for stomach cramps)

Stomach cramps are sudden and cramp-like pain in the abdomen. It is characterized by a knotting pain or tightening feeling in the stomach and abdomen. People with stomach cramps can have headaches and nausea. This condition can be acute, short lived or can be long lasting and affects a person repeatedly.

Causes of stomach cramps

  • Indigestion
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Constipation
  • Food poisoning
  • Appendicitis
  • Inflammation of abdominal organ
  • Kidney stones

    stomach cramps

    Take plenty of rest when having a stomach cramps.

  • Tumor
  • Ulcer or cancer

Symptoms

  • Painful urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Muscular pain on the whole body
  • Constipation

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest when having a stomach cramps.
  • Prescribed H2 blockers to lessen the pain and discomforts. H2 blocker lessens the amount of acids produced by the stomach.
  • Apply hot compress on the affected area for at least 10-15 minutes to loosen and relax the muscles. Wrap heating pad or hot water bottle before placing to the belly to prevent burn and worsen the condition.
  • Take the prescribed medication to lessen the pain and the discomfort.
  • Avoid eating heavy meal rich spicy rich foods. Avoid alcohol and caffeine to prevent worsening of the condition.
  • Drink rice water to relieve of the inflammation on the stomach. Mix ½ cup of white rice to 2 cups of water in a pot. Cook the rice in medium-low heat. As the rice becomes tender, remove from the heat and let it rest for 3 minutes. Drain and drink the warm water. Honey can be added to the warm water for added benefits.
  • Drink ginger tea to relax the muscles lining the intestinal tract and lessen cramping of the stomach. Ginger is rich in oxidant called gingerol.
  • Drink plenty of water at least 6-8 glasses every day for healthy and proper functioning of the intestines. It also flushes out virus and toxins present in the body. Another alternative is drinking fresh fruits and vegetables, green teas and clear broths are also good for the condition.
  • Eat small portions of the food during meal time instead of 2-3 large meals. Eat bland or mild foods to lessen pain in the stomach.
  • Fill a cup with warm water and then add 1 teaspoon of salt. Mix them well until salt is totally dissolved and drink the solution to relieve of stomach cramps.
  • Perform yoga stretches to lessen bloating, stimulate digestion and lessen cramping in the abdomen.
  • Increase consumption of fiber and vegetable, lessen the sugar, dairy and caffeine intake to prevent inflammation and worsen the condition. Take prescribed vitamin B3 supplement is good for the condition.
  • Fill a bathtub with warm water; add a cup of Epsom salts. Mix them well until salt is totally dissolved. A drop of peppermint oil can be added to the mixture for added benefits. Soak in the solution to lessen the pain and relax the muscles.
  • Massage gently the stomach to lessen the pain and for fast healing.

How to treat dry eye

May 8th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat dry eye)

Dry eye is also called dry eye syndrome which happens when the tears does not give proper lubrication for the eyes. This condition causes discomfort and several symptoms. The eyes need layers of tears to keep the area well lubricated and prevent dust and other irritants from entering the eyes. If the condition is left untreated, it increases the risk of developing infections and damage to the surface of the eyes.

Causes of dry eye

  • Aging
  • Excessive exposure to dry air or wind
  • Allergies
  • Dysfunctional tear glands
  • Previous surgery on the eye
  • Long-term using of contact lenses
  • Not blinking for a long time
  • Long hours of staring at the computer
  • Using medications such as decongestants, antihistamines, antidepressants and contraceptive pills
  • Vitamin A and D deficiency

    dry eye

    Wash eyes frequently to lessen irritations, further damage and inflammation.

  • Medical conditions such as arthritis, disorders of the immune system and allergies

Symptoms

  • Eye pain
  • Red eyes and irritations
  • Stinging and burning sensations in the eyes
  • Tearing of the eyes
  • Blurred vision
  • Dry and sandy sensations in the eyes

Treatment

  • Wash eyes frequently to lessen irritations, further damage and inflammation. Put baby shampoo on clean fingertips. Then gently massage the eyelids near the bottom of the eyelashes with closed eyes. Wash off the shampoo from the eyelids using lukewarm water. Repeat this process at least 2 times every day.
  • Apply warm compress on the affected eyes for proper flow of blood in the area, increase production of tears and lessen the irritation of the eyes. Soak a clean and lint-free cloth in hot water, wring out excess water and then place it over the closed eyelids for at least 10 minutes at a time.
  • Perform eye blinking exercise to increase flow of tears, moisten the eyes and spread the tears to all areas of the eyes and lessen the symptoms. Blinking exercise increases flow of blood and lessen the symptoms.
  • Install a humidifier especially during the winter season to add moisture in the air and for the eyes to prevent development of dry eyes.
  • Apply prescribed over-the-counter artificial tear to lessen the pain and the symptoms.
  • Prescribed oral or topical antibiotics to lessen the pain and the inflammation.

Tips

  • Increase fluid intake to keep the body well hydrated and prevents development of dry eye.
  • Take frequent breaks during use of computers, reading and watching television to restore lost moisture in the eyes.
  • Avoid direct blowing of air into the eyes such as car heaters, hair dryers and fans.

Dealing with tibial stress fracture

May 7th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Skeletal Injuries - (Comments Off on Dealing with tibial stress fracture)

A tibial stress fracture is a condition that is characterized by an incomplete break in the shin bone or tibia. During running, a compressive force or exertion that is placed on the tibia causes it to become squeezed, compacted or squashed. When these forces becomes repetitive and beyond the capacity of the bone, damage to the bone gradually happens.

Symptoms of a tibial stress fracture

  • Pain in the outer area of the lower third of the tibia
  • Severe pain that increases when performing activities and subsides with resting
  • Severe pain and difficulty with walking
  • Pain when applying pressure on the shin
  • Pain at night or with resting
  • Swelling

Causes

tibial stress fracture

Wrap frozen gel pack or an ice pack in a towel before placing to the area for at least 15-20 minutes to lessen the inflammation and the pain.

  • Muscles become fatigue due to prolonged running and result to stress to the bone and cause a fracture.
  • Excessive weight-bearing on the bone due to severe contraction of muscles especially in running.
  • Running on even surfaces such as grass or road and suddenly switching to uneven surfaces.
  • Repetitive impact or stress to the bone eventually will result to a fracture.
  • Bad posture of the foot
  • Excessive training
  • Poor biomechanics
  • Weakness, fatigue or stiffness in the muscles
  • Stiffness of the joint
  • Wearing ill-fitting footwear
  • Unequal length of the legs
  • Irregular menstruation
  • Obesity

Treatment

  • Take plenty of rest at least for eight weeks. Avoid placing weight on the affected area to prevent further damage and delays the healing.
  • Wrap frozen gel pack or an ice pack in a towel before placing to the area for at least 15-20 minutes to lessen the inflammation and the pain.
  • Compress the affected area using an ACE bandage and wrap it around the affected tibia to lessen the swelling and the pain.
  • Elevate the area above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling and the pain. It also increases blood circulation in the area. Raise the leg in couple of pillows to keep it elevated.
  • Use prescribed crutches to prevent unnecessary movements and complete weight-bearing in the affected area.
  • Take the prescribed medications to lessen the pain and the inflammation.
  • Perform rehabilitation exercises with the help of the physical therapist for strength, flexibility, balance and restore range of movement of the affected area.

Tips

  • Make changes slowly when starting a new exercise routine. Avoid overworking the body to prevent tibial stress fracture.
  • Take calcium supplement for strong and healthy bones.
  • Wear shoes with proper support for the feet to prevent stress fracture.