Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

Author Archives: Ibrar

Hemoptysis or coughing up blood may be due to a wide range of lung conditions. Coughing up blood comes from the respiratory tract, either the Hemoptysislungs or the throat. Blood present in cough may range from frothy to pink or bright red or mixed with sputum. Coughing up blood is not always caused by a serious underlying disease. It is fairly common to produce a sputum tinged with little blood from time to time and does not usually connote call for alarm. Emergency medical services should be called if coughing up blood occurs frequently or blood appears in large quantities.

Types of Hemoptysis

                The common types of hemoptysis are mentioned below.

  • Blood-tinged sputum (very common)
    • Usually harmless
    • In the form of blood streaks or spots or clots in white mucus or yellow purulent sputum
    • Caused by pneumonia, bronchitis or laryngitis
    • Pure coughing up blood (very common)
      • In the form of blood without sputum
      • Caused by vascular rupture, bronchial hemorrhage, pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchial tuberculosis, etc.
      • Large amount of coughed up blood
        • Caused by vascular rupture and bronchial hemorrhage
        • May lead to immense bleeding
        • Rusty sputum (prune-juice sputum)
          • In the form of blood or blood pigments in reddish-brown sputum (similar to prune juice in appearance)
          • Contains bacteria, mucus and sloughed necrotic lung tissues
          • Caused by lobar pneumonia
          • Gelatinous blood sputum (currant-jelly sputum)
            • In the form of brick red jelly-like blood in thick, bloody, mucoid sputum
            • Characteristics of sputum is due to combination of endobronchial plug of blood, mucus, debris and bacteria
            • Caused by Klebsiella pneumonia
            • Pink frothy sputum
              • In the form of pink blood in frothy (air) sputum
              • Frothy appearance is due to mixing with secretions of alveoli
              • Cause by acute pulmonary edema or heart disease (resulting to acute left heart failure)

Causes of Hemoptysis

Many potential diseases can lead to hemoptysis as seen above. Some of the other causes of hemoptysis not mentioned above include:

  • Bronchiectasis
  • Tumors in the lungs
  • Lung cancer
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Anticoagulation medications
  • Use of cocaine
  • Trauma, such as gunshot wound

Tests for Hemoptysis

Many tests can be performed to determine the bleeding rate and if there poses danger to breathing. These tests will determine the cause for hemoptysis:

  • Bronchoscopy
  • Chest CT scan
  • Chest x-ray
  • Lung biopsy
  • Lung scan
  • Sputum culture and smear
  • Blood chemistry profile
  • Coagulation tests
  • And many more

Treatment for Hemoptysis

Treatment will always vary depending on the underlying cause of hemoptysis. Some of the most common treatment includes:

  • Antibiotics for tuberculosis and pneumonia
  • Chemotherapy for lung cancer
  • Steroids for inflammatory conditions
  • Bronchoscopy
  • Bronchial artery embolization
  • If intense and fatal, surgery.

No direct remedy can be given to treat hemoptysis. Although understanding hemoptysis can aid when taking first aid training, as knowledge on these matters can help recognize symptoms, especially when discussing airway obstruction.

First Aid Classes – Communication

July 31st, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Basic First Aid Skills - (0 Comments)

Part if your role as a first aider is to communicate with others, particularly the

emergency services. First Aid Classes will give you the skills and knowledge required to give an appropriate handover of the right information in order to get the response you need from the service you require.

Many countries have a national number to dial for emergency services. The emergency services number for the Canada and the United States of America (US) is 911, the UK is 999, and the European Union (EU) is 112.

If possible, when you are a first aider at an incident, try to get help from others who may be able to make the area safe, telephone for help or get first aid equipment. St Mark James First Aid manual suggests that they may also be able to control traffic or onlookers, help control bleeding or support a limb, help maintain the patients privacy or assist in transporting the patient to a safe place if they are in danger where they were found.

Whilst they are doing all of this, you can be commencing essential first aid treatments, therefore acting quicker and hopefully getting a better outcome or response as the patient may be treated before they deteriorate too much.

However, remember that bystanders may not react as well as you hope, they may be in shock, or if they have no first aid training they could feel helpless or frightened. They could be distressed if they are witnessed of an incident, or could be a concerned relative or even involved in the incident themselves. If they have been involved be aware that they could also have injuries.

workplace approved Training recommends that you remember to stay calm in this situation, and ask others to help you in a firm but gentle manner. Be clear when giving instructions as they may not have the same level of understanding as you do.

If no one else is available, you may need to telephone for help yourself. You will need to state your name clearly and let them know that you are a first aider. The operator will firstly need your telephone number and the exact location of where you are. Try to give a road name or number, and be as specific as possible naming any junctions or nearby landmarks.

You can then give them further information on the incident itself. Give them any information you have on the patient(s); if possible include details on the number of patients, their sex, age or approximate ag

First Aid Classes

First Aid Classes

e, and anything you know about their condition or suspect. Also notify them of any potential hazards like gas, toxic substances, power-line damage, or even bad weather conditions like fog or ice.

Remember, as per workplace approved First Aid manual, always stay calm and try to keep a clear head in order to give the best treatment, organise helpers at the scene, and be able to give clear practical information to the emergency services operator or when handing over to the professionals when they arrive.


First Aid Manual (The Authorised Manual of St. John Ambulance, St Andrew’s Ambulance Association and the British workplace approved), 2006.

Bleeding Wounds

July 26th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in First Aid Programs - (0 Comments)

First Aid Classes – Severe Bleeding from Wounds

Some wounds bleed more than others however if bleeding is severe workplace approved Training explains it can be very distressing for both passers by and the patient. As a first aider your aim is to firstly control the bleeding.

It is well known that applying pressure can help to control bleeding, however you must first establish if there is anything embedded in the wound as the treatment will be slightly different.

The aims are the same for both wounds with embedded objects and wounds that are clear, however when trying to control the bleeding, you would do so without pressing the object further into the wound.

The aims stated in workplace approved First Aid manual for all patients with bleeding wounds are:

  • To control the bleeding
  • Prevent and minimise the effects of shock
  • Minimise risk of infection
  • Arrange urgent medical assistance

Firstly, you should put on disposable gloves if there are any available. This is to protect both yourself and the patient. If required, you should remove or cut any clothing away in order to expose the wound.

Bleeding WoundsAs previously stated, applying pressure over the wound will help to control the bleeding. For a wound with no object(s) embedded within it, do this using your fingers or palm, however it is best practice to do this over a sterile dressing or a non-fluffy (so it doesn’t stick or leave fluff in the wound) clean pad, or you could ask the patient to apply pressure themselves if they are able. Secure the wound with a dressing and bandage if available, ensuring it is applied tight in order to maintain compression, however check to ensure there is still adequate blood flow to the limb.

However, if there is an object in the wound, First Aid Classes state you must compress the wound on either side of the object, to push the wound edges together. The dressing for a wound with an embedded object is also different. The wound should not just be covered and pressure applied to it. Instead, you should use padding on either side of the object and then bandage over the object, taking care not to press it into the wound.

To help to reduce the bleeding you should also elevate the injured body part above the level of the chest, whilst continuing to maintain pressure. If available, you could support the injured body part in an elevated position using a sling or bandaging. This will also minimise the swelling and this will in turn help ease any pain.

If the bleeding is not controlled, the patient is at risk of developing shock. This is a severe condition and can be fatal if not treated. As a first aider you must try to prevent and minimise the effects of shock by elevating the patients legs above the level of their chest. Ideally, workplace approved Training suggests laying them down on a blanket, both for their comfort and to protect them from cold.

Continue to monitor the patient for signs of shock whilst waiting for medical assistance, as well as observing their responsiveness, pulse and breathing.  It is important not to allow the patient to eat, drink or smoke during this time, in case surgery is needed.

You should also check the bandage for further bleeding coming through; you may need to apply a second dressing on top of the first. If it continues to strike through, First Aid Classes say you should completely redress the wound, ensuring that accurate pressure is applied to the site of bleeding.


First Aid Manual (The Authorised Manual of St. John Ambulance, St Andrew’s Ambulance Association and the British workplace approved), 2006.

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?

July 23rd, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared - (0 Comments)

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?

The summer is expected to get even hotter. Read on to learn more about how to prepare yourself for the heat wave.

Are You Ready For A Heat Wave?The scorching weather that swept many parts of Canada in recent days is here to stay, that’s according to Environment Canada. While people who are enjoying the beach are finding some relief from the heat, those who are living in inland provinces are advised to prepare for the worst.

Climatologists are surprised for the heat wave that struck many parts of Canada at the beginning of July. It is a rare phenomenon that experts are now warning people to prepare for an unusually hot summer.

Like any other climate disturbance, extended heat waves can be dangerous, even lifethreatening, to high risk populations that include young children, elderly, people with chronic illnesses, and those weigh beyond the scales.

Here are some tips to help you prepare:

• Know how to recognize and treat heat emergencies (heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke).
• Make sure that the air-conditioning (AC) system is working well. It recommended to be checked before the summer season.
• If your house does not have AC system, consider having it installed. If not, be sure to have one or more fans on standby to help cool down your body.
• Weather-strip sills and doors to allow more cool air in.
• Put up shades over windows that receive sunlight.

In case of extreme heat:
• Stay indoors and avoid performing strenuous physical activities outdoors.
• Listen to warnings about extreme heat from your local authorities.
• When at home, stay on the lowest floor and away from the sun, usually the coolest spot in the house. If your house is also hot, stay in a cool place (such as a shopping mall, library, community center) especially at the height of the day.
• Increase fluid intake to keep your body hydrated and help you cool down. Avoid alcoholic beverages and caffeine as they can cause dehydration.
• Eat small, frequent meals. Do not take on too much heavy foods or excessive protein.
• Wear light, loose clothing; avoid layers of clothing.
• Take frequent baths or cool showers.
• Never leave young children in closed vehicles even for short periods. Temperatures within the car can shoot up to a dangerous level within just a few minutes.


As we age, the body gradually finds it difficult to adjust to sudden changes in temperature making older adults at risk for heat emergencies during heat waves. Moreover, there are many chronic medical conditions and medications that can affect the body’s normal responses to heat. Make sure to check on elderly family members and relatives in case of extreme heat.


While animals can adapt to changes in environment, they may not be
able to achieve adequate coping mechanisms because of limitations in their environment. Make sure that your pets have plenty of water and access to cooler environments. Never over-exert your pets outdoors during the peak of the day, especially for pets with thick fur or older pets. Like humans, animals can also suffer from heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Lead Poisoning

July 5th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Poisons - (0 Comments)

Lead PoisoningThis is a medical condition that occurs in humans and other vertebrates when heavy metal lead builds up in the body over a period of months or years. This interferes with a variety of processes and affects vital organs in the body like kidneys, heart, reproductive and nervous systems. Lead poisoning is especially rampant in children under the age of six years where it can severely affect their physical and mental development but sometimes become fatal.

Lead as a natural metal, is commonly available and is used in construction materials. However, long term exposure to it can cause serious health complications especially to unborn and young children because it is toxic and their growing body makes them more susceptible to absorbing and retaining lead. Exposure to high amounts of lead in adults too may cause lead poisoning.

Signs and symptoms

Babies who get exposed to lead before birth usually experience slowed growth and learning difficulties whereas in young children symptoms of lead poisoning include: loss of appetite, weight loss, abdominal pain, vomiting, irritability, constipation, sluggishness and fatigue. In adults however, one with lead poisoning exhibits high blood pressure, pain, numbness, decline in mental functioning, headaches, muscular weakness, memory loss, abdominal pain, reduced sperm count,  in case of a pregnant woman, premature birth or miscarriage.

Contributing factors

Several factors have contributed to the increase in lead poisoning in different parts of the world. These include age. For instance, infants and young children stand the highest risk of exposure to lead poisoning through chewing paint chips and touching lead dust during play. Living in an older home increases the chances of lead poisoning too, and certain hobbies like refinishing of old furniture might put one into contact with lead and finally, most developing countries usually have less strict rules with regard to lead exposure.


When one wants to treat any degree of lead poisoning, it is prudent to first remove the source of the contamination. Remove the likelihood of it causing problems in case one cannot remove lead from the environment. A local health department can recommend ways of reducing lead in the community. Avoid exposure to lead especially in children. For severe cases, doctor may recommend. Besides, to help in protecting one and family from lead poisoning, apply the following simple measures: regular hand washing, cleaning of dusty surfaces, don’t attempt to remove the lead paint by sanding, don’t remove an open-flame torch to remove paint and covering an old paint by painting over an old lead paint as opposed to removing it.

It is important to note that exposure to even low levels of lead can cause damage over a given period of time more so in children. The greatest risk may be to the brain development where an irreversible damage may be caused by lead poisoning. Nonetheless, in both children and adults, lead poisoning can cause damage to the nervous system and the kidneys. Very high levels of lead are known to have caused unconsciousness, seizures and death. Simple protective measures mentioned above should be adhered to in curbing lead intoxication.

Related post:

Management of Seizures for First Aid Training

Laryngitis Infection at a Glance

July 5th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared - (0 Comments)

Layrngitis can cause difficulty breathing and irritation

Laryngitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of a human’s voice box; larynx resulting from overuse, infection or irritation. It is characterized by hoarse voice and sometimes causes temporary complete loss of the voice as a result of irritation to the vocal folds.


Laryngitis causes are classified as either acute or chronic.  Acute laryngitis is  generally caused by cold or flu as a result of viral infection, inflammation due to overuse of vocal cords especially in shouting, singing or speaking, constant coughing, throat clearing and throat injury. Moreover, it is chronically caused by any allergic reaction from dust, toxins, chemicals or fumes, extreme consumption of alcohol, smoking or as a result of disease affecting esophagus.

Signs and symptoms

The common symptoms of laryngitis include weak voice and often one can lose the voice completely, hoarseness of voice where it may sound rough, be deeper than ordinary, or break frequently. Others include dry and sore throat, coughing and trouble when swallowing.

Risk factors

The risk factor for laryngitis are overusing ones voice by either shouting, too much singing loudly or speaking at the top of one’s voice, coming into contact with irritating substances like cigarette smoke, chemicals at workplace, stomach acid and excessive consumption of alcohol. Others include respiratory infections for instance, sinusitis, cold and bronchitis.

When to seek medical attention

At times, during the infection, one is likely to contract a secondary bacterial infection which becomes one of the major complications of laryngitis. However in little children, swellings in the larynx arising from irritation make both inhalation and exhalation hard and noisy. In such a case, urgent medical attention is recommended.


Laryngitis cases more often than not get better within a period of one week or thereabout. Meanwhile, to aid in relieving a patient’s symptoms, the following measures should be practiced: taking enough fluids, stopping both smoking and taking of alcohol until the condition improves, resting one’s voice and speaking normally yet avoiding whispering as this would strain the voice. Laryngitis being a viral infection does not require an antibiotic unless in case of a bacterial infection, where the general practitioner would prescribe the right antibiotic to use. In addition, he would advise on appropriate treatment in cases of related illnesses like pneumonia and bronchitis.


Prevention method is unclear because it usually occurs during cold or other related infections. Nonetheless, constant practice of beneficial lifestyle changes can help prevent the infection. These are: maintaining high levels of personal hygiene, avoiding clearing of voice as this is likely to cause an unusual vibration of one’s vocal cords; distancing from any kind of irritants like smokes, and limiting alcohol intake including caffeine.

In conclusion, laryngitis infection affects both young and old. It can either be acute or chronic and lasts for a week then clears on its own. Antibiotics apply only in bacterial infection on prescription by a doctor. It remains necessary to practice good lifestyle changes in case one contracts laryngitis.

Articles you may want to read:

AED Training For Rescues

When the Bones are Dislocated, It is Time to Get MedicatedCarmel was in Spain for an official business trip when she dislocated her right thumb. She was alone in her hotel room when decided to take a bubble bath after a full day of meetings and sightseeing.  Her foot was already inside when she realized that she forgot her iPod so she quickly rushed to get it from her luggage. Her foot wet the marble floor or her bathroom but she didn’t mind it much. On her way back to the tub, she slipped and tried to save herself by landing on her right hand. This quickly turned into one of her most painful experiences. Although Carmel was relatively thin, the body weight caused her thumb to bend the wrong way, thus causing its dislocation.

When the bone has been forcibly moved from its normal position at the joint, a dislocation occurs. When the two ends of bones are displaced from their normal positions, the bones become dis or “apart” or location or “a place of settlement or activity,” hence there is a dislocation. A dislocated bone may lead to impairment of ligaments, nerves and blood vessels.

Dislocation usually results from falls, car accidents or collision during contact. The most common dislocation sites are the shoulders and elbows for adults and children, respectively. The larger joints of the body are more prone to dislocation. Nonetheless, the hand’s position makes the thumb susceptible to dislocation when it is bent the wrong way. Due to the dislocation, there will be a momentary dislocation and disable the action of the joint. Swelling and severe pain are some of the symptoms of dislocation.

If treated early, most dislocations will not lead to permanent damage. Therefore, medical attention must be called for immediately.  The victim should not be moved, especially if neck injury is suspected. Only move the victim if there is danger in the immediate surroundings. More so, dislocated bones should not be pushed back to its joint. Moving the bone may result to damaging the joint and its adjacent muscles, ligaments, nerves or blood vessels. Small nerve and blood vessels may be trapped and result to numb digits. Immobilize the injured area.

If one is trained to do so, sling and/ or splint the injury in its original location. Boards, rolled newspaper and numerous other materials may be used as splints. To minimize discomfort, splints may be padded. Slings may be used for arm or shoulder injuries. To reduce swelling and assist in relieving pain, apply ice

on the affected joint. This will control internal bleeding and accumulation of fluids in and surrounding area of the affected joint. Ice must not be directly applied to the skin and should be wrapped in a towel or other pieces of clothing. Check for breathing if injury is serious. If no breathing is observed, commence CPR. Raise the feet one foot. To reduce body heat loss, cover the patient with a blanket.

In most medical emergencies, first aid training and CPR may be applied. Especially athletes and those who work with them should be knowledgeable of proper treatment. workplace approved programs offer first aid training and CPR courses which are offered to the community.

A Fact Sheet on Motorcycle Accidents

June 26th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Uncategorized - (0 Comments)

Motorcycle accidents are among the deadliest of all road accidents. The U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that motorcycle accidents are 35 times more deadly than for passengers in a motor vehicle accident. Here are some numbers about motorcycle accidents:

  • Around 88,000 motorcyclists sustain injuries in highway accidents each year.
  • At least, 4,800 motorcyclists have died due to road crashes.
  • Motorcycle accidents account for 11 percent of all road accidents in the United States.
  • Head and neck injuries are the leading causes of fatal motorcycle accidents.
  • Motorcyclists or motorcycle riders who are not wearing a helmet have a 40 percent chance of suffering from head injuries compared to those who wear a helmet.
  • The use of helmet minimizes the risk of nonfatal injuries by at least 15 percent compared to those who wear a helmet.
  • Wearing helmets reduces the likelihood of fatal motor vehicle accidents by up to 37 percent.
  • There are over 7.1 million motorcycles currently registered in the U.S.
  • The motorcycle fatality rate is currently at 73 per 100,000 registered motorcycles; while passenger vehicle fatality rate is just around 14 per 100,000 registered automobiles.

The number of fatalities due to motorcycle accidents is growing disproportionately as compared to motorcycles registered. This means that as the number of registrations grew the number of fatalities has also doubled.

There are many different causes of motorcycle accidents. Some of the possible causes include:

  • Bad weather conditions;
  • Going beyond the speed limits;
  • Not using turn signals;
  • Driving between lanes or splitting;
  • Ignoring traffic rules;
  • Driving on the wrong side of the road;
  • Lack of experience;
  • Not seeing the motorcyclist due to obstructions or glare;
  • Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs;
  • Trouble with the motorcycle;
  • Roadway problems or defects;
A Fact Sheet on Motorcycle Accidents

A Fact Sheet on Motorcycle Accidents

But still the main reason for motorcycle accident is that motorbikes do not offer as much protection as other closed vehicles. While wearing helmets can help save lives, motorcyclists do not have other protection in case a crash occurs.

Helmets can provide some degree of protection, preventing fatal results. In fact, wearing helmets is considered the simplest yet best way to reduce deaths due to motorcycle accidents. It can cut fatalities by up to 37% for motorbike riders and 41% for passengers. Unfortunately, around 40% of all victims involved in motorcycle accidents do not wear helmets at the time of the accident.

It is estimated that wearing a helmet saves around 1,830 lives, and about 800 victims would have survived motorbike crashes had they only worn helmets. While there is an increased advocacy for the use of helmets, motorcycle riders seem to ignore the calls. This is the reason why motorcycle accidents remain to be the deadliest of all car crashes.

Considering the risks, motorcyclists should know and practice safety while riding their motorbikes on the road. Awareness of the importance of helmets is an essential piece of the puzzle in the prevention of motorcycle accident-related fatalities.

Related articles you can read:

Know More About Crush Injury

Toe Walking in Children

June 16th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in First Aid Programs - (0 Comments)

Walking on toes or the balls of the feet is common in kids who have just started to walk. Toe walking is usually outgrown in many children and children who still continue doing so just do it due to habit. As long as your child is healthy and growing normally, toe walking is not a problem at all.

Toe walking may occasionally result from muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy or other diseases of the muscles or nerves. Autistic children may also walk on their toes; however, in most cases this is unlikely.

Signs and symptoms

  • Walking on the toes or the balls of the feet.

When to seek medical attention

During your child’s upcoming checkup, make sure you mention toe walking to your doctor. It is ideal to make a sooner appointment if toe walking accompanies symptoms such as stiff leg muscles or reduced muscle coordination.


Usually toe walking is a child’s habit as he or she learns how to walk and grows and develops. Occasionally, toe walking may be caused by an underlying medical condition requiring prompt treatment, such as:

  • A short Achilles tendon. The Achilles tendon joins the leg muscles at the back of the heel bone. if the Achilles tendon is shorter than normal, it may prevent the child’s heel from touching the ground, thus enabling him or her to walk on toes
  • Cerebral palsy. This is a disorder associated with movement, posture or muscle tone resulting from abnormal development of the brain or injury.
  • Muscle dystrophy. This is a genetic disease which causes the muscle fibers to become vulnerable to damage, thereby, leading to progressive muscle weakness. Your child will most likely have to be diagnosed if he or she walked normally before walking on toes.
  • Autism. Some experts also link toe walking with autism which affects a person’s ability to interact and communicate with other people


For children who are toe walking, treatment is not required because the child will most probably outgrow it. During regular checkups, your child’s walking or gait will be simply monitored and diagnosed to ensure that there is no cause for concern.

If toe walking occurs due to a physical condition, treatment options may include the following:

  • Physical therapy. This includes performing subtle stretching exercises of the leg and foot muscles to improve gait
  • Splints and leg braces. these may help encourage proper gait
  • Surgery. If conservative or nonsurgical treatment methods are ineffective in improving gait, your may be referred to a surgeon or specialist in order to rectify the underlying problem, such as lengthening the short tendons or muscles at the back of the leg.

In case, other conditions such as autism or cerebral palsy contribute to toe walking, treatment will focus on these conditions.

Survival In The Wilderness

June 11th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in Being Prepared - (0 Comments)

Wilderness Survival Tips : How to Make Fire

[media url=”″ width=”600″ height=”400″]

You find yourself in the midst of a forest – injured, stranded and alone. Nighttime starts to fall, conditions are becoming unfavorable, and you can do nothing but wait for the following day or longer. Will you survive in the wild? Your chances of surviving are greatly improved if you have these life-saving items and know how to use them.

Keep yourself warm and dry

Hypothermia or low body temperature can quickly kill you. The body needs to maintain its temperature within the normal range or else many cellular functions may be adversely affected. Heat loss is much faster if you are wet and the wind is blowing. Therefore, it is important to keep yourself dry. Heavy-duty garbage bags or space blankets are a good protection against the elements. These supplies are lightweight and are very easy to carry. Choose high-capacity versions, with thicker materials and bright colors. These surfaces would not only keep you warm and dry; they can also help make you more visible from rescuers. Emergency first aid will be very useful with this kind of situation.

Learn how to make a fire

Fire is essential, as it serves many functions: source of warmth, safety against wild creatures, and as a potential rescue signal. Make sure to carry emergency fire starts such as matches that are waterproof. You can also find “metal match” which can produce long-lived sparks when struck with a metal scraper. These sparks can effectively ignite a flame. Other common household fire starters, such as butane lighters, may not be suited for outdoor use. Operating them on cold, wooden hands are rather difficult.

Know basic first aid

Before heading out to the wild, you should consider taking a basic first course.

Basic First Aid Training

Basic First Aid Training

There are many accidents that can occur while you are in remote areas. In case this happens, emergency medical services may not reach you immediately. Therefore, you should know how to provide for emergency care. Take a time to learn standard first aid before going to an adventure in the wilderness for emergencies.

There are special first aid certification programs designed for remote or wilderness areas. Usually, these are two-day practical courses that are intended for anyone who spends much time in the remote geographical locations more than one hour from standard medical care. This certification course will equip you with skills on how to treat emergency situations using available supplies and materials. Outdoor enthusiasts, avid mountaineers, climbers, forestry workers, hill farmers, and anyone who love wild places should learn the first aid skills. If you are interested at learning these specialty first aid skills, you can contact your local workplace approved chapter or any first aid training institution near you for available schedules.

Help rescuers locate you

Make sure somebody knows where you’re going and the estimated duration of your trip, or else, it will take more days before rescuers start looking for you. Carry signaling devices such as a whistle so that you can alert rescuers of your location and situation. These signaling devices can be used to communicate distress signal even from afar. If possible stay in a safe place where rescuers can easily find you.