Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

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[heading style=”1″]Standard First Aid explains the difference between HOPS and SOAP format in assessing any injury.[/heading]

Before assessing any injury, the opposite (non-injured) body part should be

Standard First Aid injury assessment procedure

Standard First Aid injury assessment procedure

assessed. This preliminary step in the injury evaluation process helps the individual, preferably with first aid training and CPR courses, to determine the relative dysfunction of the injured body part. If an injury occurs to one of the extremities, the results of individual tests performed on the non-injured body part can be compared with those for the injured body part. Differences can indicate the level and severity of injury. The baseline of information gathered on the non-injured body part also can be used as a reference point to determine when the injured body part has been rehabilitated and, as such, when to allow return to full participation in an activity. Under most circumstances, assessment of the non-injured body part should precede assessment of the injured body part. In some acute injuries, such as fractures or dislocations, assessment of the non-injured body part is not necessary.

The injury evaluation process must include several key components namely, taking a history of the current condition, visually inspecting the area for noticeable abnormalities, physically palpating the region for abnormalities, and completing functional and stress tests. Although several evaluation models may be used, each follows a consistent, sequential order to ensure that an essential component is not omitted without sufficient reason to do so. Two popular evaluation methods are the HOPS format and the SOAP note format. Find for the nearest first aid and CPR training locations near you.

Firstly, the HOPS format uses both subjective information, such as history of the injury, and objective information, such as observation and inspection, palpation, and special testing, to recognize and identify problems contributing to the condition. This format is easy to use and follows a basic, consistent format. The HOPS format focuses on the evaluation component of injury management and excludes the rehabilitation process. The subjective evaluation, such as history of the injury, includes the primary complaint, mechanism of injury, characteristics of the symptoms, and related medical history. This information comes from the individual and reflects his or her attitude, mental condition, and perceived physical state. The objective evaluation, like observation and inspection, palpation, and special tests, provides appropriate, measurable documentation relative to the individual’s condition. Measurable factors may include edema, ecchymosis, atrophy, range of motion (ROM), strength, joint instability, functional disability, motor and sensory function, and cardiovascular endurance. This information can be measured repeatedly to track progress from the initial evaluation through final clearance for discharge and return to participation in a sport or other physical activity. A detailed postural assessment and gait analysis also may be documented during the objective evaluation.

Here is a YouTube video that will explain further about injury assessment aside Standard First Aid article.

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The second evaluation method is the SOAP Note Format. It provides a more detailed and advanced structure for decision making and problem solving in injury management. Used in many physical therapy clinics, sports medicine clinics, and athletic training facilities, these notes document patient care and serve as a vehicle of communication between the on-site clinicians and other health care professionals. These notes are intended to provide information concerning the ongoing status and tolerance of a patient and, in doing so, to avoid duplication of services by health care providers. The subjective and objective evaluations are identical to those used in the HOPS format; however, two additional components are added to the documentation: assessment, and planning. It is common practice to use abbreviations throughout the notes.

Each evaluation method has its advantages, but the SOAP note format is much more inclusive of the entire injury management process.

[note color=”#d14549″]Standard First Aid References:[/note]

Documenting general observations. Nursing 2006; 36(2):25.

CPR classes can play an important role given the uncertainty of the events in the world. Some might learn different CPR procedures just to serve humanity while others might want to get a career in healthcare as well as take care of such people. Either way, knowing CPR and applying it on right time, in right way can save someone’s life because doctors and other medical professionals are not around all the time.If you’re thinking to take CPR classes then you might as well know some facts about CPR classes before doing so, these facts can be found in the rest of the article.

Online or Traditional

Since everything is going online, how can education and training stay behind? Online education has become quite popular in the past few years due to people being busy and online classes provide flexible schedules at convenience of the learners and sometimes people go for online training because they are too lazy to attend traditional ones. But on a brighter side, online classes can be good for early phase and getting basic knowledge and then you can move to traditional route.

Traditional classes are always better than online, especially when it comes to get some hands-on practice. Since CPR requires practical experience it is advised to take traditional classes as well. Online classes can provide theoretical knowledge but it’s like learning to drive by reading only, so when you’ll have to actually drive that will result in panic, however, panicking while saving someone’s life will lead to different consequences.


Is it important that the provider of the course or trainer is accredited by a reputable organization? A simple answer would be, yes and the importance cannot be stressed more if you are looking for career in healthcare because if your training is not recognized then there are quite high chances of getting rejected by your prospective employers. Moreover, an accreditation also ensures that the organization is fit to provide training and has met all the required standards of providing proper training. Therefore, you should check the accreditations of an organizations providing CPR training.


Certifications are also important if you want to shine your resume and impress your prospective employer. However, it is not necessary to have certifications if you just want to save people’s life and help them. Getting a certification is not a bad idea, but if an organization isn’t offering it and you don’t want to enter into healthcare then it is fine to let it go or not have it.

Level and Type of Training

This is also important. Level of training means whether you just want to learn basic techniques or you are willing to take an extra mile and go to advanced level and want to know about CPR in more detail, there are different types of CPR trainings such as for infants, kids, adults and elderly. These are just main ones; there are also other types as well. You should know what type of training and at what level you want to learn it.

Oxygen is essential to life. Without oxygen, an individual can die in minutes. This is also the reason why first aid procedures put great emphasis on establishing proper oxygenation. For instance, in CPR, the initial action is to establish an open airway and to provide oxygen through rescue breaths.

Oxygen administration is an important skill for every first aider to learn. First aiders must have basic knowledge on how to use oxygen equipment, as well as when and how to administer oxygen. Victims of breathing emergencies have a better chance of survival if they receive supplemental oxygen immediately. There are different reasons why an individual would require oxygen:

A short YouTube video clip showing about Administering Oxygen via Non Rebreather Mask and Nasal Cannula

  • Respiratory arrest – the person’s lung has ceased to function, causing an inadequate gas exchange in the lungs.
  • Cardiac arrest – the heart is unable to pump adequate amount of blood into the systemic circulation. Take note that respiratory arrest may occur alongside or as a result of cardiac arrest.
  • Major blood loss – there is not enough volume of blood that carries oxygen to body tissues because of the reduction in the number of red blood cells. This forces the heart to pump harder, demanding increased amounts of oxygen. Victims of major trauma that lead to blood loss require supplemental oxygen.
  • Lung disease or injury – the ability to move gases in and out of the lungs may be significantly compromised, leading to a decrease in oxygen supply to body tissues.
  • Heart attack and heart failure – the heart is unable to effectively pump oxygenated blood towards vital body organs.
  • Shock – the cardiovascular system fails to deliver sufficient blood to all vital tissues of the body. All types of shock can cause a reduction in the amount of oxygenated blood into body tissues.
  • Airway obstruction – obstructions in air passages can cause a significant reduction in the amount of oxygen that reaches the lungs.
  • Stroke – interruption in the supply of oxygen to the brain can cause significant damage to brain tissues. Take note that the brain requires constant supply of oxygen. Lack of oxygen in the brain can cause the blood vessels to constrict, causing an irreversible damage to the brain.
  • Major head injuries – trauma to the cardiovascular system and airway obstruction can all cause a reduction in the amount of oxygen supplied to the brain.

When providing first aid, it is important to remember that atmospheric air only provides no more than 21 percent oxygen. In normal situations, this percentage of air is enough to supply adequate amounts of oxygen to the lungs, provided that the airway is clear and body organs are functioning well.

Administering emergency oxygen is an advanced skill that you can learn through advanced first aid course. Usually, it is a regular part of training for professional rescuers and healthcare professionals such as lifeguards, firefighters, and EMTs.

Boils and carbuncles

May 4th, 2013 | Posted by Ibrar in First Aid for Burns - (0 Comments)

Boils and carbuncles are pus-filled bumps that are often painful and form under bacteria infected skin, causing it to inflame your hair follicles.

Boils often develop as red and tender lumps during the initial stages. These lumps will quickly get filled with pus as they grow larger, causing more discomfort until they rupture. A carbuncle is a collection of boils that form under the affected regions of the skin.

A single boil can heal with self-treatment measures however, you must avoid pricking it or trying or to drain the pus as this may infect other regions of the skin. See your doctor if you have a very painful boil or carbuncle, if symptoms persist for more than two weeks or if the boil or carbuncle accompanies a fever.

Signs and symptoms

Boils usually develop on the face, neck, thighs, armpits or buttocks, but they can appear anywhere on the skin, usually on hairy areas where there is heat, friction and sweat.

Signs and symptoms of boils include:

  • Painful red bump—starts off as a pea sized lump
  • Inflamed, red and swollen skin around the lump
  • After a few days the size of the lump within a few days as it fills with pus – the boil can be as big as a golf ball
  • Appearance of a yellow or whitish tip on the bump which will eventually rupture and drain pus

The boil will drain eventually and the pain will subside. Usually small boils disappear without leaving any scars; however, larger boils may leave scars. It is important that you do not try to burst the boil yourself and allow it to rupture on its own.


Carbuncles are clusters of boils that are more likely to occur in the thighs, shoulders and the back of the neck.

Carbuncles may

  • Result in severe and deeper infections compared to individual boils
  • Develop more slowly than individual boils
  • Heal slower than single boils
  • Leave scars

Signs and symptoms that may occur along with a carbuncle include:

  • Feeling sick
  • Fever
  • Chills


When to seek medical help

Small boils can be taken care of with self-treatment, however, you may have to see a doctor if:

  • You have a boil on the face or your spine
  • The boil worsens rapidly and causes a lot of pain
  • The boil is very large and has not healed within two weeks
  • The boil accompanies a fever
  • You are having frequent boils
  • You have a suppressed immune system due to organ transplant, HIV/AIDS or corticosteroid use
  • You have recently been hospitalized


It is important that children and elderly receive medical care in case they suffer from boils or carbuncles.


Small boils can generally be treated with warm compresses to control pain and encourage drainage.

In case of larger boils and carbuncles, specific treatment usually includes drainage of the boils through an incision and sometimes, the doctor may also prescribe antibiotics.