Standard First Aid Training, Courses and Re-Certifications.

How to treat mouth and dental injuries

August 13th, 2014 | Posted by A. Jones in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on How to treat mouth and dental injuries)

A mouth injury are common in young children and involves the teeth, lips, jaw, inner cheeks, tongue, roof of the mouth, tonsils, gums and neck. Occasionally, these injuries looks worse than they are, even a small cut or puncture inside the mouth can cause so much bleeding because there are so many blood vessels in the neck and head area.

Injury in the teeth can be caused by a fall or in a sports activity or it can be knocked out (avulsed). It can be replaced with a permanent tooth in its socket by replanting. If the tooth was knocked out or torn away from the socket, immediate first aid and dental treatment should be given to the person.

A crack, chip, or break a tooth, or changes in color of the tooth can also be caused by a tooth injury. A tooth that loses or moves out of position is called dental luxation, or a tooth that is jammed into the gums is called intruded.

Grinding of teeth at night can also cause dental injuries. A broken or a loose dental appliance that is attached to the teeth or an orthodontic wire or bracket will rub the inside of your mouth and making it sore.

Mouth injuries

Injury in the mouth and lips causes large, loose tissues or a gaping wound that will need stitches.

Injury in the mouth and lips causes large, loose tissues or a gaping wound that will need stitches. A wound in the lip can be stitched. A piece of broken tooth or an orthodontic wire that is attached to the wound would require medical care.

When a person falls on a pointed object like a pencil or a Popsicle stick in his or her mouth, it will cause injury to the roof of the mouth, the back of the throat or a tonsil can cause damage to the tissues in the head and neck.

Treatment for mouth and dental injuries

  • Applying a cold compress to the injured area or the person will suck on a piece of ice or flavored ice pop like Popsicle.
  • Rinse the wound with warm water after eating meals. Use saltwater to promote healing by mixing 1 teaspoon of salt to a cup of water.
  • Eating soft foods that can be easily swallowed like milk, shakes, ice cream, yogurt. Other recommended foods include custards, cottage cheese and sherbets, mashed potatoes, chicken, tuna, eggs and peanut butter.
  • Avoiding foods that are spicy, salty, citrus fruit juices and tomatoes.
  • Avoid smoking or use tobacco products, avoid drinking alcohol.
  • If an orthodontic wire or bracket is stabbing the gums or teeth, create a roll or ball of molten candle wax or orthodontic wax and apply it the area that is prodding the gums or teeth.

Preventive measures

  • Have the teeth and gums checked by the dentist regularly
  • Using a seat belt when riding in a vehicle to prevent or reduce injuries in the mouth during motor vehicle accidents.
  • Wearing a mouth guard when playing some sports, it can be made by the dentist.
  • Wearing a helmet and face guard in sports to protect the face, mouth, or head if accidents might happen.
  • Proper wearing of the orthodontics appliances, like the retainer or headgear.
  • Using orthodontic wax in protecting the inside of the mouth from poking wires.

Difference Between Incisions And Lacerations

August 4th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Difference Between Incisions And Lacerations)

Any type of injury on the skin is considered as a wound. They can be classified as open and closed. Open wounds are usually the ones that make the skin torn or broken. Closed wounds, on the other hand, have fewer categories, but they are just as injurious as open wounds; these include hematomas and crush injuries. Open wounds have five categories, incisions, lacerations, abrasions, contusions and punctured wounds.

Among these, the most commonly confused wounds are lacerations and incisions, because both of them make a cut to the skin. But the severity and intent of the cut is what makes the two different from each other. Let us take a look at how lacerations and incisions differ from each other.

What is a laceration?

Laceration is a type of wound that happens when the soft tissue in the body are torn. As a result, they are often jagged or irregular in size and shape. They are usually produced by some kind of blunt trauma to the skin. Because lacerations are produced by whatever object that caused the cut, the wound is usually contaminated with debris or bacteria.

What is an incision?

In comparison to laceration, an incised wound is caused by a sharp-edged object, such as a razor or a knife. This means that the size and shape of the wound are usually regular and the wound itself is smooth and neat unlike lacerations. Although incisions could happen as a result of a knife or glass shard accidents, they could also happen from purposeful opening of the skin, such as when a surgeon needs to perform open surgeries. This means that incised wounds can be both clean and contaminated, depending on the nature of the cut.

Which type of wound heals faster?

Incisions and lacerations both take some time to heal. But an incised wound heals faster than a lacerated wound. This is because lacerations are jagged, while incisions are regular in shape. Also, the smoothness and straightness of cuts in incisions produces fewer scars than a lacerated wound.

Additional note: remember to keep your wounds clean

Whether you have a laceration or incision, treating that cut is very important to avoid contamination, which could eventually lead to infection.

Always practice proper hand washing before cleaning the wound.

Applying sterile dressing on an incision is one way to prevent contamination.

Applying sterile dressing on an incision is one way to prevent contamination.

Keep in mind that wounds heal normally. Surgical wounds, however, may heal slower unless the wound dressings are changed regularly and the incision site is often checked for any contamination.









Check out this site for more standard first aid tips and techniques for bleeding wounds.

Related Video on Wound Cleaning:


“Lacerations versus puncture wound.” Medline Plus. Retrieved online on July 30, 2014 from

“Five Types of Wound.” LIVESTRONG.Com. Retrieved online on July 30, 2014 from


Using vinegar for first aid

July 30th, 2014 | Posted by A. Jones in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Using vinegar for first aid)

Vinegar is very useful in many first aid situations. If you will sign up for first aid training, you will learn the usefulness of vinegar. It is the first antibiotic treatment for humans.

  1. Treating abrasions – vinegar is a natural antiseptic that can be used to treat abrasion by mixing ½ cup of vinegar and ½ cup of water. It is used to clean minor cuts and abrasions. It can also be used in reducing the itchiness caused by poison ivy or other insects.
  2. Sunburn – in treating sunburns using vinegar, first thing you do is cover the sunburns with a towel soaked in the mixture of water and vinegar. Another way is putting vinegar and water mixture in a spray bottle and apply it directly on the burned area of the body. To reduce swelling and fluid caused by the sun, you can mix baking soda and apple cider vinegar and apply to affected area.
  3. Stiff muscles – in reducing the stress of over-worked muscles, you have to mix ½ cup vinegar and ½ cup warm water. Then soak a towel, wring out the towel and use it to cover the sore muscles, then cover it with a plastic wrap and leave it overnight. When reducing bruising, mix ½ cup vinegar and ½ cup cold water, use it as cold compress and secure in place with a tape or sports wrap.
  4. Treating diarrhea – cider vinegar is good with digestion and an antiseptic on the intestines and the digestive tract. Mix 1 tsp. of cider vinegar to one glass of water, drink it before meals. This will lessen the intensity of diarrhea.
  5. Hay fever – the symptoms of hay fever are watery eyes, sneezing and runny nose. You can treat hay fever using honey and vinegar. Take 1 tbsp. of honey and a dose of cider vinegar 3 times a day during seasons of hay fever. If you want some extra relief, use local honey and begin the treatment.
  6. A scratchy throat – to relieve sore throat, you have to gargle with apple cider vinegar and water mixture. Mix ½ cup apple cider vinegar and ½ cup water. Repeat this treatment every hour. Rinse your mouth properly to minimize the effect of acidity on your teeth.

It is used to clean minor cuts and abrasions. It can also be used in reducing the itchiness caused by poison ivy or other insects.

Apple cider vinegar can be made into apple cider vinegar bath. It helps heal the skin and restoring the natural balance. Apple cider vinegar can also be a disinfectant in homes, improve your health and can be used for home beautifications. It can also remove stains and buildup of hard water.

Other uses of vinegar

All-purpose cleaner – mixing 2 parts water and 1 part vinegar and place in a bottle spray and add a few drops of liquid dish detergent, then shake it. It can be used for cleaning stainless steel, counter tops, windows, and sinks.

Stinky or slow drainage – pour ¼ cup of baking soda in the drain and then add ½ to 1 cup of vinegar. After a while flush it with hot water.

Fruits fly at home – using a small jar or canning jar, poke holes in the lid. Fill it with ¼ cup vinegar and place it on top of the counter. It will trap the fruit flies.

First Aid for Drug Overdose

July 23rd, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Drug Overdose)

Whenever a person takes too much of a drug – whether it is a prescribed, bought over-the-counter, or taken for recreational purposes – he/she can suffer from drug overdose. Whenever these drugs are taken in excess without appropriate medical supervision, it can be fatal for the health of the victim unless given prompt care.

How does a drug overdose occur?

Overdose or poisoning can have a wide range of effects on the body, but this varies greatly from the type of drug ingested, how much is taken, and the purpose for taking it.  Apart from prescribed and over-the-counter medications that are taken without proper supervision, poisoning from drugs can happen to anyone. But they commonly occur on teenagers attending night parties and taking “recreational drugs” in hopes of staying “high” and active all night. The problem with this is that they do not know the contents and nature of the substance and its possible effects on the body. Sometimes, they even take more than one kind of drug, but this further complicates their health and could be fatal in the long run.

Treatment goals for drug overdose

As first aid providers, the only that you can do is to give as many information as possible to the emergency services once they arrive. So, the first step in providing first aid to a victim suffering from drug overdose is to call emergency hotline, check the patient’s breathing and vital signs, as well as to ask the patient some questions about the type of drugs taken. The main goal therefore is to avoid airway obstruction and maintain circulation and breathing while help arrives.

If the victim is conscious, do the following:

  • Place them in a comfortable position
  • Reassure, talk to, and calm the patient especially when they become agitated
  • Regularly monitor vital signs, particularly the pulse and breathing
  • Assess the surrounding and interview the patient to help you identify what kind of drug has been taken.

If the victim is unconscious:

  • Check breathing and open the airway. Make sure that there are no obstructions
  • Prepare to give rescue breathing and chest compressions if necessary
  • If the victim is breathing normally, though, simply place them in a recovery position as help arrives.
Put the patient in recovery position if he is unconscious but breathing normally.

Put the patient in recovery position if he is unconscious but breathing normally.

Important reminder: there are some drugs that could cause serious overheating or sudden rise in body temperature. Be sure to check the patient’s temperature and remove any clothing if necessary to avoid further overheating of the body.

Learning some practical skills about first aid can help save someone’s life during critical situations. Enroll in a first aid course to know more about the importance of first aid administration.






Related Video on Drug Overdose First Aid:


“Drug Abuse First Aid.” Medline Plus. Retrieved online on July 23, 2014 from

“First Aid For Poisons and Drug Overdoses.” Howstuffworks. Retrieved online on July 23, 2014 from

Hyperthermia First Aid Tips

June 21st, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Basic First Aid Skills | Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Hyperthermia First Aid Tips)
Water for Hyperthermia.

Water for Hyperthermia.

When the body’s thermoregulation fails because of too much external heat that is absorbed, hyperthermia occurs. The extreme levels of high temperature are usually absorbed by the body more than it can generate and it is an emergency condition requiring immediate medical care. Hyperthermia needs to be treated as soon as possible to prevent death or disability. Whenever the body’s temperature reaches above 104F, it will begin to show signs of heat stroke, a prominent indicator of hyperthermia.

Administering first aid and recognizing the signs and symptoms of hyperthermia is very important, as it may save the life of a victim.

What causes hyperthermia?

There are several reasons why hyperthermia occurs, one of which is prolonged exposure to warm, dry environments, especially under direct and extreme sunlight. Aside from heat stroke, other common forms of hyperthermia include heat fatigue, heat exhaustion, heat cramps and heat syncope. In addition to these, the risk for developing hyperthermia also increases depending on the lifestyle of an individual.

Usually, not drinking proper fluids, overdressing during hot climates, living in houses without proper ventilation and too much insulation, visiting highly populated and crowded places, and walking or running under extreme heat, all increase the likelihood of hyperthermia.

There are also several medical conditions that contribute to hyperthermia such as taking medications that increase urine output (diuretics) and decrease sweating, being dehydrated, being underweight or overweight, and age-related body changes.

Warning signs and symptoms of hyperthermia

As the victim’s condition becomes worse, warning signs start to appear including irritability, confusion, nauseous, increase heart rate and pulse, headaches, and temperature starting to increase.  These are the warning signs for hyperthermia that should be watched out for. Once the temperature continue to elevate more than 104F, symptoms will start to appear including muscle spasms and cramps, difficulty of breathing, dry mouth and warm skin, and possible faintness. Keep in mind that the elderly are the most prone to hyperthermia, because they may initially faint before even exhibiting other signs and symptoms.

First Aid Tips for Hyperthermia

  • First and foremost, it is important to move the victim to shaded, cool areas. Place the victim in a place with adequate ventilation.
  • If the victim is overdressed, remove unnecessary clothing.
  • If the victim is suffering from heat stroke and has fainted, call emergency assistance immediately.
  • To help lower body temperature, apply ice packs or cold compress on the neck, armpits, groin and chest.
  • If the victim is conscious, have him/her sip water to replenish lost fluids and help lower body temperature.

Having enough knowledge about hyperthermia is necessary to save someone’s life. It is therefore necessary to enroll in first aid courses to know more about emergency first aid provision.


Related Video On Hyperthermia:


“Heat Induced Illness.” Australian Resuscitation Council. Retrieved online on June 19, 2014 from

“Hyperthermia First Aid.” Free MD. Retrieved online on June 19, 2014 from

Emergency 101: Important Things To Do When Your Nose Bleeds

May 18th, 2014 | Posted by Aris Eff in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Emergency 101: Important Things To Do When Your Nose Bleeds)

Some Facts About Nosebleeds

People have different reactions to nosebleeds – it can be frightening, scary or dramatic. But luckily, nosebleeds are not severe, though it can happen to anyone at anytime. Nosebleeds normally happen when the nose is irritated or because of colds. Also, the air that we breathe can also contribute to the incidence of nosebleeds. For instance, during summer and winter months the air becomes very dry (resulting from the coldness or dryness of the weather), which makes the air moving in and out of the nose dry, too. This could irritate the nostrils, which contain thousand of small blood vessels. Once irritated, the membrane linings inside the nose can easily get cut and cracked. So, once a person picks, rubs or blows his/her nose, it can irritate the membrane linings causing nosebleeds. In this case, stopping the bleeding of the nose is the top priority of first aids.

What Are The Types Of Nosebleeds?

There are two types of nosebleeds – anterior and posterior nosebleeds.

  • Anterior nosebleeds are the most common types of nosebleeds we experience, where the bleeding comes from the frontal blood vessels of the nose. They are easier to manage and control.
  • Posterior nosebleeds, however, are more complicated and may be a result of a pre-existing medical condition, so it is needed to be checked up by a physician. It is more commonly seen in older patients.

Important First Aid Tips For A Bleeding Nose

  • Sit straight with your body bending forward, because this helps drain out the blood on your nose. Also, keeping the bleeding part elevated from the heart is the best way to stop the bleeding.
Sitting and bending forward is the right position to drain out the blood from the nose.

Sitting and bending forward is the right position to drain out the blood from the nose.

  • Softly pinching the end portion of the nose can also help the bleeding stop.
  • Placing ice pack on the nose bridge is also a helpful remedy for nose bleeds.
  • Do not blow your nose, because it can further irritate the nostrils and aggravate the bleeding
  • Do not swallow the blood, because this can make you choke, cough or even vomit.
  • Never tilt your head back, because it only makes the blood run back into the throat.
  • Once the nosebleed stops, remain calm and avoid unnecessary movement. When you get nervous, your blood pumps faster and it can possible trigger another nosebleed. Too much movement and activities can also strain the affected nose, which might cause another episode of nosebleed.
  • If the bleeding does not stop after you have conducted first aid interventions, it is important to call a doctor to have your condition checked. This way, they can determine if the nose bleed is associated to a pre-existing medical condition.
  • Finally, if your nosebleeds occur too frequently, you should see a doctor to further evaluate your condition.

Related Video on Nosebleeds


Nosebleed (Epitaxis, Nose Bleed, Bloody Nose) (2014). Retrieved online on March 18, 2014 from

Nosebleeds. (2012). Web MD. Retrieved online on March 18, 2014 from

First Aid for Choking

May 4th, 2014 | Posted by Lana Badon in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Choking)

Choking is a life threatening injury that can happen to a child or a friend of yours. No one can predict accidents. Hence, it is a must to know the basic first aid training. Taking up short courses for first aid training gives you the knowledge on how to save lives, proper handling of different first aid materials, and to avoid more accidents to happen.

Choking is one of the most common accidents that may occur in children and adults. Choking happen when an object accidentally blocked partially or completely the throat of a person. Food is the leading cause of choking for children and adults. Children below 1 year old usually insert small object into their mouth – that is there way of exploring things around them and that causes choking or death. Blocked air path decreases oxygen supply to the brain, and brain can only survive without oxygen supply for approximately 5 to 10 minutes. Lack of oxygen to the brain may likely develop serious and possibly irreversible brain damage.

Mild choking in adults and children over one year old – This occurs when the air path is partly blocked. Affected persons usually can’t be able to speak, breathe or cough. An adult or a child can remove the blockage by themselves.

Steps to help an adult and a child over one year old with mild choking:

  • Reassure them.
  • Advise the person to keep coughing to be able to remove the foreign object.
  • Assist the person to remove the blockage using two fingers and thumb to grasp the object.

Signs of Severe Choking:

  • Clasped hand on throat – universal sign of choking
  • Inability to speak
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Unable to cough forcefully
  • Loss of consciousness if blockage is not cleared.

First-Aid Treatment for Severe Choking:   

Heimlich Maneuver

Heimlich Maneuver


In helping an adult or a child over one year old who is severely choking, an abdominal thrust should be performed. It is widely known as Heimlich Maneuver. Here are the steps to be taken:

  1. Stand or position yourself behind the person and wrap your arms around the waist. The rescuer’s arms should be just above the belt line.
  2. Make a fist with one hand and grasp the fist with your other hand. Make sure that you place your fist, thumb side in, against the patient’s abdomen between the waist and the rib cage.
  3. Press your fist abruptly into the patient’s abdomen with a quick inward-upward thrust to increase airway pressure to remove the obstructing object.
  4. Perform this maneuver 5 times to be able to quickly remove the obstruction.
  5. Repeat the procedure until the object comes out of the patient’s mouth.

How To Treat A Cold or Sore Throat At Home

April 7th, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on How To Treat A Cold or Sore Throat At Home)

Are you suffering from a cold or sore throat? You do not have to worry because you can deal with the problem from the comfort of your home without having to seek for medical assistance or going to the chemist to buy drugs. There are a wide range of home remedies for cold you can use to get rid of the cold and prevent other related ailments. The good thing about the home remedies is that they help eliminate the symptoms immediately unlike the artificial drugs that take some times to cure the health problem.

Cold or Sore Throat Home Remedies

Garlic tea

Garlic tea is a well known for strengthening the immune system. It is effective in treating cold or sore throat because it has both antibacterial and antiviral properties that make it effective to cure cold, flu and coughs. One of the best ways to take full advantage of the healing power of garlic is to take fresh garlic tea. All you need to do is to sweeten it with a little raw honey to make it delicious and boost its power to heal the cold

  • Peel two to three cloves of fresh garlic and crush them lightly.
  • Add them to two cups of water and allow it to boil.
  • Reduce the heat and allow it to simmer for another fifteen minutes.
  • Strain the garlic and let the tea cool down to a temperature that is right for the mouth.
  • Add the raw honey, squeeze a lemon juice and drink as much as you can.

Honey and red onion cough syrup

This is another home remedy for both adults and children suffering from cold or flu. Prepare it using the following procedure.

  • Peel, wash and slice the whole onion horizontally.
  • Starting with the base of the onion, arrange the slices in a bowl alternating with layers of the honey or brown sugar. However, raw honey that has healing properties is more effective.
  • Continue adding the layers of the onion and sweetener until the onion is fully reconstructed in the bowl.
  • Cover and let the sweetened onion remain in the bowl on your counter for twelve to fifteen hours. The next day, you will get one cup or more of the syrup in the bowl.

This syrup contains a range of nutrients, minerals and vitamins from the onion and the honey that help to reduce the cough and sooth the sore throat. Take a spoonful of the syrup as required. The good thing about this syrup is that it does not have the taste of the onion that may make it taste poor when taken.

First Aid for Nosebleeds

March 22nd, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Nosebleeds)
home medicines

First Aid for nose bleed

One of the most common medical emergencies is nosebleeds. This is a problem that affects all people regardless of their age or sex and a topic covered in basic first aid training. The problem mainly occurs as a result of trauma of the nose, nose picking and many others. Just like any other first aid, the first thing you are supposed to do is to check the condition of the patient so that you can make an informed decision on what you are supposed to do. If you realize that the victim is very unstable, you should call an emergency service provider or call 911 for more assistance. Note that as you wait for the emergency health provider to arrive, you need to put some measures to reduce or stop the bleeding because this can be fatal.

How to carry out nosebleeds first aid

Since nosebleeds involve blood streaming, it is necessary that you wear a disposable face shield or gloves if you have them.

  • Sit the victim down and make sure he or she is leaning slightly forward. Request the victim to pinch the soft, fleshy section of the nose firmly for ten to fifteen minutes.
  • The mouth should be open to allow effective breathing through the mouth and also to spit any blood from the mouth. Ensure there is a sink, container or bowl in front for the victim to spit the blood.
  • Check their blood pressure and pulse to find out if they are normal.
  • After fifteen minutes are over, let the victim release the pressure to find out if the bleeding is under control. If you realize that it is not yet controlled, let the victim continue with the pinching.
  • In case the nosebleeds continues after fifteen minutes of pressure the victim need to be taken to an accident and emergency facility.

Determine what may be the underlying cause

It is good to know what is the underlying cause of the nosebleeds even as you give the first aid. Determine if the cause may be as a result of the following.

  • Trauma or recent surgery
  • If the victim is suffering from leukemia, hemophilia or if there are cases of bleeding disorders in their family.
  • Check for any sign of facial pain, rhinorrhoea, nasal obstruction, allergens, cranial neuropathy and other environmental factors.

If the nosebleed stop with first aid, you can consider administering topical antiseptic to the victim. In case the victim suffers from regular bleeding of the nose, it is good to visit nose, ear or throat specialist for more checkups.

First Aid for Minor Cuts

February 13th, 2014 | Posted by vanfirstaid in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Minor Cuts)

Wounds can be classified as minor or major depending on their extent in terms of size and how deep they are. Minor wounds can turn to be a major problem if they are not handled in the right way. Regardless of whether a cut is minor or major immediate intervention is crucial to avoid more damage from happening. To ensure that the cut do not turn to be a major health issues follow these first aid steps.

First Aid Steps for Minor Cuts

The first thing that you need to do is to check the wound to determine how dangerous it may be. If the wound shows the following signs you need to call 911 or any other efficient emergency service provider.

  • If blood is spurting out profusely
  • If the cut has a lot of bleeding
  • In case the bleeding cannot stop after ten minutes or steady pressure or any other method used.

It is good to check whether the wound may require stitching because a cut should be stitched within six hours from the time it occurred. The only exceptions are the minor cuts that occur to the scalp and face which can be stitched within twenty four hours.

Stop or Reduce the Bleeding

After examining the wound, you need to try to stop the bleeding immediately. You can do this by applying direct pressure on the minor cut.

how to dress minor cuts

Tending to a minor cut

Clean the Wound and Prevent Infection

  • Use warm water and gentle shop to cleanse the cut to remove any dirt that may bring germs to the wound.
  • To minimize the risk of infection, you need to put an antibiotic ointment. Only use ointment that is approved and follow the instructions. If the ointment applied leads to a rash, stop applying it.
  • Put a sterile bandage on the minor cuts to cover and offer more protection.
  • Put a sterile bandage on the area. In some people, antibiotic ointments may cause a rash. If this happens, stop using the ointment.

When to Call for Emergency Help

You should call for medical help in case of the following:

  • The minor cut is over the joint.
  • If it becomes hard to get the cut or make the laceration clean.
  • You should also call for medical help if the victim has not received tetanus injection or booster for the last five to ten years.
  • Minor cuts caused by animal or human bite also require to be attended by a physician.

If the wound get treated at home, remove the bandage after some few days to boost the healing process.

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