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How to treat eye strain

June 20th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat eye strain)

Eye strain is a condition that happens when the eye becomes tired from excessive use such as staring at computer screens and other digital devices and long-distance driving.

Causes of eye strain

  • Excessive reading without pausing to rest the eyes
  • Looking at screens of digital devices
  • Long distance driving and performing activities that involves extended focus
  • Exposure to bright light or glare
  • Looking at a very dim light
  • Stressed and fatigue
  • Underlying eye problems such as dry eyes or uncorrected vision
    eye strain

    Sore, tired and burning or itching eyes.

  • Exposure to dry moving air such as fan or heating or air-conditioning system

Symptoms

  • Watery or dry eyes
  • Sore, tired and burning or itching eyes
  • Headaches
  • Sore neck, shoulders and back
  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Increased sensitivity to light
  • Feeling of incapable of keeping the eyes open
  • Tightness of the temples

Treatment

  • Make a relaxing mask by soaking small clean towel cold water. Wring out excess water from the towel and then fold it lengthwise and place it over the eyes for at least 2-7 minutes while lying down. Repeat this process several times every day. Another alternative is using tea bags. Tea bags have tannins that constrict blood vessels and lessen puffy eyes due to eye strain. Ice cubes placed in a plastic bag and placed in the affected eyes also lessen the symptoms.
  • Turn off any strong lights, extra lights and fluorescent light bulb to prevent long exposure of the eyes to these lights and over stimulate the body and eyes. It will also prevent fatigue and irritability. Make a comfortable lighting by using soft and warm lights.
  • Use anti-reflective screen on the computer screen to lessen the glare and lessen straining the eyes.
  • Strengthen the eyelids by lowering the eyelids halfway down for at least 5 seconds. Then slowly close the eyes and relax the eyelids. Take a few breaths to increase flow of blood in the area. Inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth for at least 1-2 minutes.
  • Prescribed artificial tears to lessen dryness of the eye
  • Prescribed medicated eye drops to lessen dry eyes and other symptoms
  • Take regular breaks from working on a computer or looking at the phone by closing the eyes for a few minutes, standing up and stretching the body and taking snacks or a short meditation.
  • Wear sunglasses to protect the eyes from the ultraviolet rays of the sun or the blue light from electronic devices to prevent making the condition worse and prevent headaches.
  • Take plenty of rest and sleep at least 7-9 hours of sleeping.

Tips

  • Avoid exposing the eyes to air such as hair dryer, car heater and air conditioner.
  • Install a humidier inside the room to add moisture to dry air.

Ways of treating psoriasis cracks and bleeding

June 19th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Ways of treating psoriasis cracks and bleeding)

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disorder that causes formation of plaques that appears on the skin. Plaques are thickened, dry and reddened areas of the skin that develops scales on the surface. It causes itchiness and burning sensations, and these can crack and bleed and cause pain.

Causes of cracking and bleeding psoriasis

  • The affected areas are very dry due to loss of skin moisture and prone to develop cracks or fissures. The cracks become deepen over time.
  • The cracks become large and extend deeper to the lower level of skin where there are small blood vessels called capillaries. Breaking these capillaries results to bleeding.
  • Common areas in the body that develop plaques and susceptible to cracking and bleeding includes the knees, elbows, soles of the feet and palms of the hands.
  • Rubbing, scratching or scraping of the skin.
    psoriasis

    Common areas in the body that develop plaques and susceptible to cracking and bleeding includes the knees, elbows, soles of the feet and palms of the hands.

  • Regular movements and stretching of the skin

Treatment

  • Stop the bleeding. Apply a steady pressure on the area using a cloth or bandage for at least 10 minutes. Avoid lifting the bandage to check the wound. When bleeding stops, rinse the area using lukewarm or cool water to prevent development of infections.
  • Seal the crack using prescribed liquid bandage. It coats the affected area and it is flexible and waterproof. Bring the edges or cut together and spray or brush the liquid bandage on top of the affected area. The bandage dries in a minute and can last for a week.
  • Prescribed water tight medical tape to close the cracks. It keeps the wound moist for fast healing of the area. Use the sticky part of the bandage to close small cuts. Place bandage across the wound to hold it together.
  • Apply a layer of lip balm or petroleum jelly on small cut to protect the area from further irritations.
  • Soften the dry patches in lukewarm water for at least 15 minutes. Another alternative is adding Epsom salts, oils, colloidal oatmeal and Dead Sea salt to lessen the itchiness and the irritations. Pat dry the skin using a towel and then apply an emollient ointment, oil or cream on the area for fast healing.
  • Before sleeping at night apply ointment such as petroleum jelly on the wound. Cover the area to lock in the moisture overnight. Another alternative is using olive oil, vitamin E and shortening is also good for the condition. Protect the hands and feet by wearing cotton gloves and socks.
  • Moisturize the area at least 2 times every day to keep the area moist.
  • Prescribed medicated lotion, ointment or cream for fast healing of the wounds and prevent development of new ones.
  • Take a bath using warm water mixed with Epsom salt, mineral oil and olive oil. It relaxes the skin and gently removes scales or dead skin from the epidermis or outer layer of the skin.

Remedies for fire ant bites

June 19th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Remedies for fire ant bites)

A fire ant is a venomous and aggressive insect with pinching mandibles found in their heads and a sharp stinger on the rear side of the body which is attached to a venom sac. Stings of the fire ants usually happen on the legs or feet after accidentally stepping on their mound.

Skin reactions

  • Instant burning sensations followed by itching and raised and red swelling that develops on the skin that last for about 4-6 hours.
  • Formation of pustules with blisters for a week.
  • Sometimes a large swelling can develop and last for 6-12 hours. Swelling with severe itchiness and eventually becomes painful. In one or two day the swelling becomes enlarged and becomes hot and severely painful.
  • Anaphylaxis happens which is a severe allergic reaction within 30-40 minutes after the bite. The whole body becomes itchy, difficulty with breathing and weakness.
    fire ant bites

    Instant burning sensations followed by itching and raised and red swelling that develops on the skin that last for about 4-6 hours.

Symptoms of fire ant sting

  • Pain
  • Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea
  • Development of hives, swelling and itching
  • Blistering
  • Problems with breathing and chest tightness
  • Swelling of the tongue, throat, lips or swallowing difficulties
  • Anaphylactic shock and result to blackout, dizziness and cardiac arrest if not treated immediately.

Treatment

  • Wash the affected area using mild antiseptic soap to wash off venom, dirt or debris present in the skin to prevent any development of infections. Pat dry the skin using soft towel and apply olive oil to moisturize the area.
  • Remove embedded stinger in the skin by scraping it using a credit card. Avoid pinching the stinger to prevent releasing more venom in the area.
  • Elevate the affected area above the level of the heart to lessen the swelling and the pain. If the legs are affected raise it in couple to pillows to keep it elevated.
  • Apply cold compress to the area to lessen the itchiness of fire ant stings. Put some ice cubes in a plastic bag and wrap it in towel before placing to the area for at least 5 minutes at a time on the first 24 hours after the sting. Another alternative is running cool water over the affected area for a few minutes.
  • Oatmeal is rich in anti-irritating and anti-inflammatory properties that lessen the inflammation and the itchiness of fire ant stings. Fill a bathtub with lukewarm water and add 2 cups of colloidal oatmeal and mix it thoroughly. Soak the affected areas in the mixture for at least 30 minutes, 2-3 times every day.
  • Inject epinephrine immediately if available for breathing difficulties, severe swelling and changes in consciousness.
  • Prescribed hydrocortisone injections or cream for severe swelling and pain and redness of the skin.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on fire ant sting is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the signs and how it is managed by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Remedies for swimmer’s itch

June 18th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Remedies for swimmer’s itch)

A swimmer’s itch is due to macroscopic parasites infecting mammals and birds. The parasites migrate from snails and spread to geese, ducks, gulls, swans, beavers and muskrats.

Remedies for swimmer’s itch

The rashes are characterized by a reddish pimples or blisters in the skin and usually develop in a few minutes or days after exposure to the parasites.

These infected birds spread the parasite into the water through their feces and eggs. When the parasite is exposed to the human skin, it burrows into the skin and results to rashes. The parasites cannot develop inside the human skin, later on they just die.

Symptoms of swimmer’s itch

  • The rashes are characterized by a reddish pimples or blisters in the skin and usually develop in a few minutes or days after exposure to the parasites.
  • It affects the exposed skin not covered by swimsuits, wet suits and waders
  • Tingling, burning or itching sensations can be felt.
  • Scratching of the affected area result to secondary infection.

Treatment

  • Apply cold compress on the area. Put some ice cubes in a plastic bag and wrap it in a towel or a thin cloth before placing on the area to lessen the swelling and the pain.
  • Prescribed antihistamines or anti-itch creams to lessen the itchiness.
  • Prescribed medication to lessen the pain and discomforts.
  • Soak the affected areas of the body using Epsom salt and water mixture. Fill a bathtub with warm water and add a cup of Epsom salts. Mix them well until salt is totally dissolved. Soak the body in the mixture to lessen itchiness and relax the body. Baking soda can also be mixed with warm water is also good for the condition.
  • Make a paste by mixing baking soda with a few drops of water. Mix them until it becomes the consistency of a paste and apply it directly on the affected area to lessen the itchiness and other symptoms.
  • Wash the affected area using diluted apple cider vinegar.
  • Avoid wearing synthetic clothes while in the healing process to prevent further irritations on the skin and worsen the condition. Wear cotton clothes.

 

Tips

  • Avoid swimming or wading in contaminated waters especially marshy areas and plenty of snails.
  • Avoid swimming in the shoreline, go to deeper water and flowing water such as rivers to prevent development of swimmer’s itch.
  • Rinse properly exposed skin with clean water immediately after the swim. Dry the skin vigorously using a towel.
  • Wash swimsuits regularly especially after taking a swim.
  • Avoid feeding birds on docks or near swimming areas.
  • Apply waterproof sunscreen on exposed areas of the skin before taking a swim to prevent swimmer’s itch.
  • Maintain cleanliness and well chlorinated swimming pools.

Dealing with road rash

June 18th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in First Aid Injury Assessment - (Comments Off on Dealing with road rash)

Road rash are abrasions caused by falling onto and usually skidding across on asphalt after an accident from motorcycle, bike and skateboarding. The rubbing of skin and skidding across asphalt causes the skin to abrade and result to severe pain.

Abrasions from cyclists are called “road rash.” It usually results to mild bleeding or not at all but causes severe pain because it exposes many nerve endings.

Degrees of road rash

  • 1st degree- damages the epidermis and result to tenderness and redness.
  • 2nd degree- damages an area of the dermis. It causes scarring.
  • 3rd degree- damages the whole thickness of the skin and damages other tissues, muscle and nerves under the skin.
    Dealing with road rash

    Stop bleeding by applying pressure using a cloth or gauze. Put gauze on the bleeding area and apply pressure for at least a few minutes.

Treatment

  • Wash hands properly using warm water and soap to prevent infections. Use disposable gloves before starting to clean the affected area.
  • Stop bleeding by applying pressure using a cloth or gauze. Put gauze on the bleeding area and apply pressure for at least a few minutes.
  • Rinse the wound by running cool water over it to wash away loose dirt and other debris.
  • Wash the area using antibacterial soap and water. Wash only the area around the wound to wash out dirt and bacteria and prevent development of infection. Avoid getting the soap into the wound to prevent further irritations.
  • Use clean and sterilized tweezers in picking dirt, sand and splinters that is stuck in the wound. Then rinse the area using cool water when the debris is removed. Pat dry the wound, avoid rubbing to prevent causing pain. Splinters and other materials that are deeply lodged in the wound needs medical help.
  • Elevate the area above the level of the heart to lessen the pain and the swelling on the first 24-48 hours after the injury especially the wound in infected and severe.
  • Apply the prescribed antibiotic cream to prevent development of infections as it heals. Another alternative is applying petroleum jelly or aquaphor to the affected area to keep the area moist and for fast healing of the condition.
  • Cover the rash using a bandage to protect the area from dirt, irritations and infections. Use a non-stick bandage such as Telfa pad is good for the condition. Change bandages when it becomes wet and dirty. Reapply antibiotic cream before covering with fresh bandages.
  • Prescribed pain medications to lessen the pain and the inflammation.
  • Drink plenty of water at least 6-8 glasses of water every day to stay hydrated.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on road rash is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the signs and how it is treated by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Tick bites

June 6th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Tick bites)

Tick bites are caused by a tick, a small blood-sucking bug. These pests can range in size from small as a pin’s head to as large as a pencil eraser.

These ticks can grow when they take in a lot of blood up to the size of the marble. After a tick finishes feeding on its host for several days, the tick may become engorged and can have a greenish blue color.

Most of tick bites are not an issue of concern and do not cause any problem or illness. However, ticks can cause an allergic reaction and, in some cases, transmit diseases to humans or pets. These diseases that the ticks pass can be hazardous and even be life-threatening such as Lyme disease.

Signs and symptoms

Tick bites

Most of tick bites are not an issue of concern and do not cause any problem or illness.

Tick bites are often harmless and produce no symptoms. However, a person with an allergy to tick bites may experience these symptoms:

  • Skin rash
  • Pain or swelling at the site of the bite
  • A burning sensation at the site of the bite
  • Blisters
  • Breathing difficulties for a severe reaction

Treating tick bites

The most important thing to do first when you find out that there is a tick on you is to remove it with a tick removal tool or a pair of tweezers. Pull the tick straight up and away from your skin but do not try to bend the tick. Check the bite site and see if any parts of the tick’s head or mouth is in the bite, remove those if there’s any. When you’re done, clean the bite site with soap and water.

Once the tick is removed, immerse in rubbing alcohol to ensure that the tick is dead and store in a sealed container. Consult a doctor as soon as possible to find out if there’s any necessary treatment you need based on the type of tick that bit you.

Prevention

  • Inspect skin closely after travelling in tick-prone regions, especially the underarms, behind ears, between legs, behind knees, and in hair.
  • Wear long sleeves and pants while you are outside
  • Use a tick repellant
  • Take a shower or bath within two hours of being outdoors

Diarrhea

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Diarrhea)

Diarrhea is a condition where an individual has increased frequency of bowel movements, usually brought about by an infection in the stomach. Common causes of this are eating contaminated food and water. Diarrhea is more common in places where hygiene is poor and access to medicine is difficult.

Diarrhea lasts for a few days only, in most cases but diarrhea can last for weeks which indicate that there is a more serious problem.

Microbes such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites embedded in foods and water are the most common causes of diarrhea. Places with poor hygiene or improper handling or preparation of foodstuffs can cause food to be contaminated by these microbes. To prevent this, foodstuffs must be carefully handled and must be prepared in a clean environment.

Diarrhea

Diarrhea lasts for a few days only, in most cases but diarrhea can last for weeks which indicate that there is a more serious problem.

What are the causes?

  • Eating contaminated food or water
  • Diseases that cause chronic diarrhea such as Crohn’s disease
  • Food that upsets the digestive system
  • Diabetes
  • Allergies to certain food
  • Medication
  • Diseases that cause dysentery

Characteristics

  • Frequent loose and watery bowel movements
  • Abdominal cramps and pain
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • Bloating
  • Presence of blood in the stool

When is the right time to see a doctor?

  • When diarrhea has lasted for more than two (2) days.
  • When you have a fever higher than 39 Celsius for more than a day.
  • Constant nausea or vomiting that prevents you from drinking fluids to replace lost fluids.
  • Severe abdominal pain.
  • Presence of blood in your stool.
  • When you have signs of dehydration.

Treatment for diarrhea

  • Lost fluids can be replaced by drinking more fluids or can be received intravenously if oral intake is not possible.
  • Oral rehydration salts can be used to replace lost fluids and salts to help rehydrate a person suffering from diarrhea.
  • Over-the-counter medications such as Imodium can help reduce the frequency of bowel movements.
  • Antibiotics, but only must be used if the diarrhea is caused by bacterial infection.

Fever

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Fever)

A fever is an increase in the body temperature from the 37 degrees. This is caused by an immune response as this is the body’s natural mechanism of defense against infection from microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites that cannot live or survive in higher temperatures.

Fevers are also symptoms of illnesses along with other symptoms like a cough, sore throat, fatigue, chills, nausea, and much more.

Fevers that have temperatures lower than 38 degrees Celsius is considered as a low-grade fever and should normally go untreated.

However, fevers with temperatures above 40degrees Celsius are dangerous and requires immediate home treatment and may possibly require medical attention as it can develop more severe symptoms such as delirium or convulsions.

Fever

Fevers are also symptoms of illnesses along with other symptoms like a cough, sore throat, fatigue, chills, nausea, and much more.

Accompanying symptoms

  • Increase in body temperature
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Dehydration
  • Loss of appetite
  • Chills and shivering
  • Weakness

To determine your body temperature, you can use a thermometer on several parts of the body to take your body temperature. There are several types of thermometers, these include oral, rectal, ear and forehead.

You can also check your body temperature by placing an oral thermometer into your armpit.

When to consult a doctor

Fevers alone are not a cause for alarm or a reason to schedule a checkup with your doctor, though there are cases where you need to do an appointment with your doctor, these include:

  • The fever lasts longer for more than three (3) days.
  • The fever developed after being left in a hot car.
  • You experience persistent vomiting.
  • You get convulsions or seizures.
  • You experience abdominal pain or pain while urinating.
  • You experience confusion.
  • You suddenly have a sensitivity to bright lights.

Causes of fever

  • A virus
  • A bacterial infection
  • Heat exhaustion
  • A tumor
  • Some medication such as antibiotics or drugs used to treat blood pressure or seizures

Since fevers are caused by infections, the best way to prevent them from happening is to keep your environment clean and reduce your exposure to infectious diseases.

How to treat wheezing

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Breathing Emergency - (Comments Off on How to treat wheezing)

Wheezing is a high-pitched sound like a whistle while breathing in and out which happens when a person is not capable breathing properly. It can be due to some constriction in the passage of the lung where air flows in and out. The whistling sound is caused by air passing through a narrow airway.

Causes of narrowed airway

  • Swelling of the lining of the airways
  • The muscles within the lining of the airways contracts which affects the narrowing or constricting the airways or bronchospasm.
  • Mucus secretions in the airways
  • Inhaled objects such as peanuts usually happens in children

Causes of wheezing

wheezing

Labored breathing with whistling sound while exhaling.

  • Bronchiolitis
  • Asthma
  • Vocal cord dysfunction
  • Smoking
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Cold and cough
  • Exposure to dust
  • Acidity and acid reflux
  • Swallowing an object
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Heart failure
  • Sleep apnea
  • Lung cancer

Symptoms

  • Labored breathing with whistling sound while exhaling
  • Tightening sensations in the chest

Treatment

  • Prescribed anti-inflammatory medications to lessen the inflammation and the excess mucus in the airways in the form of an inhaler and tablets. Prescribed syrup medication for children.
  • Prescribed bronchodilators to lessen coughing. It relaxes the muscles that are near the breathing tubes.
  • Drink warm liquids such as herbal tea or just warm water to lessen build up of mucus. Avoid dehydration for fast healing of the condition. Drink at least 10-12 glasses of water to prevent dehydration.
  • Steam therapy to lessen wheezing. Take a steamy shower and breathe in the steam to relax the airways and the moisture thins out the mucus that cause clogging of the airways.
  • Gargle using salt water. Fill a glass with warm water; mix it with 1 teaspoon of salt. Mix them well until salt is totally dissolved and then gargle the solution at least every hour to get rid of mucus clinging in the airway passages. Salt is rich with anti-bacteria properties that stops wheezing.
  • Drink ginger tea lessens coughing, wheezing and asthma. It clears blockage in the breathing tubes and lessen the inflammation in the respiratory tract.
  • Prescribed nasal drops to lessen wheezing at least 2-3 drops for easy breathing.
  • Pursed lip breathing is a slow way of breathing and keeps the airway to open longer and lessen the wheezing. It consists of breathing through tightly pressed or pursed lips and inhaling though closed nose and mouth.
  • Stop smoking to prevent further irritations.

How to treat a wasp sting

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat a wasp sting)

Wasp sting causes redness, swelling and pain. The stinger has poisonous venom that can be transferred to humans when they are stung. They have the ability to sting several times and the stingers remain intact.

Symptoms

  • Severe pain or burning sensations at the stinged area
  • Development of hives. A small white mark at the center of the bump which indicates the point where the stinger has punctured the skin.
  • Wheezing
  • Swollen mouth or throat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea and vomiting
    wasp sting

    Keep the affected area dry as much as possible by covering it using a bandage to prevent the risk of developing an infection and worsen the condition.

  • Fainting
  • Chest pain
  • Redness, swelling and itching

Anaphylactic reaction to a wasp sting

  • Problems with breathing such as wheezing
  • Severe swelling of the face, lips and throat
  • Severe itching or hives in all areas of the body which are not affected by the sting
  • Stomach cramps
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness and hypotension which is a sudden drop in the blood pressure
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weak or fast pulse beat
  • Losing consciousness

Treatment

  • Clean the affected area using soap and water to wash away venom in the area.
  • Remove the stinger using a pair of tweezers or rub it using a card to prevent the fast spread of the venom into the body.
  • Ice the affected area.
  • Keep the affected area dry as much as possible by covering it using a bandage to prevent the risk of developing an infection and worsen the condition.
  • Elevate the area and remove any tight-fitting clothing in the legs, hands, arms or feet. Jewelries should be removed to prevent difficulties in removing them when the area starts to swell. If the legs are affected, lay down immediately to prevent swelling.
  • Prescribed calamine lotion or a topical hydrocortisone cream to lessen the irritation and itching.
  • Prescribed over-the-counter medications to lessen the pain.
  • Make a paste by mixing baking powder with a few drops of water. Mix them well until it becomes the consistency of a paste. Apply the paste on the affected area to lessen the symptoms.
  • Prescribed antihistamines to lessen the swelling and the itching caused by wasp sting.
  • Use the prescribed EpiPen if available.
  • Perform CPR if there is difficulty breathing.

Tips

  • Use a medical alert bracelet when travelling. It is a small tag that is worn on a neck chain; bracelet or clothing with a message that the bearer has an important medical condition that needs medical attention.
  • Wear protective shoes and clothing when going outdoors.
  • Avoid using strong scented perfumes outdoors.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on a wasp sting is for learning purposes only. Learn to properly manage a sting by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.