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Tick bites

June 6th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Tick bites)

Tick bites are caused by a tick, a small blood-sucking bug. These pests can range in size from small as a pin’s head to as large as a pencil eraser.

These ticks can grow when they take in a lot of blood up to the size of the marble. After a tick finishes feeding on its host for several days, the tick may become engorged and can have a greenish blue color.

Most of tick bites are not an issue of concern and do not cause any problem or illness. However, ticks can cause an allergic reaction and, in some cases, transmit diseases to humans or pets. These diseases that the ticks pass can be hazardous and even be life-threatening such as Lyme disease.

Signs and symptoms

Tick bites

Most of tick bites are not an issue of concern and do not cause any problem or illness.

Tick bites are often harmless and produce no symptoms. However, a person with an allergy to tick bites may experience these symptoms:

  • Skin rash
  • Pain or swelling at the site of the bite
  • A burning sensation at the site of the bite
  • Blisters
  • Breathing difficulties for a severe reaction

Treating tick bites

The most important thing to do first when you find out that there is a tick on you is to remove it with a tick removal tool or a pair of tweezers. Pull the tick straight up and away from your skin but do not try to bend the tick. Check the bite site and see if any parts of the tick’s head or mouth is in the bite, remove those if there’s any. When you’re done, clean the bite site with soap and water.

Once the tick is removed, immerse in rubbing alcohol to ensure that the tick is dead and store in a sealed container. Consult a doctor as soon as possible to find out if there’s any necessary treatment you need based on the type of tick that bit you.

Prevention

  • Inspect skin closely after travelling in tick-prone regions, especially the underarms, behind ears, between legs, behind knees, and in hair.
  • Wear long sleeves and pants while you are outside
  • Use a tick repellant
  • Take a shower or bath within two hours of being outdoors

Diarrhea

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Diarrhea)

Diarrhea is a condition where an individual has increased frequency of bowel movements, usually brought about by an infection in the stomach. Common causes of this are eating contaminated food and water. Diarrhea is more common in places where hygiene is poor and access to medicine is difficult.

Diarrhea lasts for a few days only, in most cases but diarrhea can last for weeks which indicate that there is a more serious problem.

Microbes such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites embedded in foods and water are the most common causes of diarrhea. Places with poor hygiene or improper handling or preparation of foodstuffs can cause food to be contaminated by these microbes. To prevent this, foodstuffs must be carefully handled and must be prepared in a clean environment.

Diarrhea

Diarrhea lasts for a few days only, in most cases but diarrhea can last for weeks which indicate that there is a more serious problem.

What are the causes?

  • Eating contaminated food or water
  • Diseases that cause chronic diarrhea such as Crohn’s disease
  • Food that upsets the digestive system
  • Diabetes
  • Allergies to certain food
  • Medication
  • Diseases that cause dysentery

Characteristics

  • Frequent loose and watery bowel movements
  • Abdominal cramps and pain
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • Bloating
  • Presence of blood in the stool

When is the right time to see a doctor?

  • When diarrhea has lasted for more than two (2) days.
  • When you have a fever higher than 39 Celsius for more than a day.
  • Constant nausea or vomiting that prevents you from drinking fluids to replace lost fluids.
  • Severe abdominal pain.
  • Presence of blood in your stool.
  • When you have signs of dehydration.

Treatment for diarrhea

  • Lost fluids can be replaced by drinking more fluids or can be received intravenously if oral intake is not possible.
  • Oral rehydration salts can be used to replace lost fluids and salts to help rehydrate a person suffering from diarrhea.
  • Over-the-counter medications such as Imodium can help reduce the frequency of bowel movements.
  • Antibiotics, but only must be used if the diarrhea is caused by bacterial infection.

Fever

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Fever)

A fever is an increase in the body temperature from the 37 degrees. This is caused by an immune response as this is the body’s natural mechanism of defense against infection from microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites that cannot live or survive in higher temperatures.

Fevers are also symptoms of illnesses along with other symptoms like a cough, sore throat, fatigue, chills, nausea, and much more.

Fevers that have temperatures lower than 38 degrees Celsius is considered as a low-grade fever and should normally go untreated.

However, fevers with temperatures above 40degrees Celsius are dangerous and requires immediate home treatment and may possibly require medical attention as it can develop more severe symptoms such as delirium or convulsions.

Fever

Fevers are also symptoms of illnesses along with other symptoms like a cough, sore throat, fatigue, chills, nausea, and much more.

Accompanying symptoms

  • Increase in body temperature
  • Headache
  • Sweating
  • Dehydration
  • Loss of appetite
  • Chills and shivering
  • Weakness

To determine your body temperature, you can use a thermometer on several parts of the body to take your body temperature. There are several types of thermometers, these include oral, rectal, ear and forehead.

You can also check your body temperature by placing an oral thermometer into your armpit.

When to consult a doctor

Fevers alone are not a cause for alarm or a reason to schedule a checkup with your doctor, though there are cases where you need to do an appointment with your doctor, these include:

  • The fever lasts longer for more than three (3) days.
  • The fever developed after being left in a hot car.
  • You experience persistent vomiting.
  • You get convulsions or seizures.
  • You experience abdominal pain or pain while urinating.
  • You experience confusion.
  • You suddenly have a sensitivity to bright lights.

Causes of fever

  • A virus
  • A bacterial infection
  • Heat exhaustion
  • A tumor
  • Some medication such as antibiotics or drugs used to treat blood pressure or seizures

Since fevers are caused by infections, the best way to prevent them from happening is to keep your environment clean and reduce your exposure to infectious diseases.

How to treat wheezing

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Breathing Emergency - (Comments Off on How to treat wheezing)

Wheezing is a high-pitched sound like a whistle while breathing in and out which happens when a person is not capable breathing properly. It can be due to some constriction in the passage of the lung where air flows in and out. The whistling sound is caused by air passing through a narrow airway.

Causes of narrowed airway

  • Swelling of the lining of the airways
  • The muscles within the lining of the airways contracts which affects the narrowing or constricting the airways or bronchospasm.
  • Mucus secretions in the airways
  • Inhaled objects such as peanuts usually happens in children

Causes of wheezing

wheezing

Labored breathing with whistling sound while exhaling.

  • Bronchiolitis
  • Asthma
  • Vocal cord dysfunction
  • Smoking
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Cold and cough
  • Exposure to dust
  • Acidity and acid reflux
  • Swallowing an object
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Heart failure
  • Sleep apnea
  • Lung cancer

Symptoms

  • Labored breathing with whistling sound while exhaling
  • Tightening sensations in the chest

Treatment

  • Prescribed anti-inflammatory medications to lessen the inflammation and the excess mucus in the airways in the form of an inhaler and tablets. Prescribed syrup medication for children.
  • Prescribed bronchodilators to lessen coughing. It relaxes the muscles that are near the breathing tubes.
  • Drink warm liquids such as herbal tea or just warm water to lessen build up of mucus. Avoid dehydration for fast healing of the condition. Drink at least 10-12 glasses of water to prevent dehydration.
  • Steam therapy to lessen wheezing. Take a steamy shower and breathe in the steam to relax the airways and the moisture thins out the mucus that cause clogging of the airways.
  • Gargle using salt water. Fill a glass with warm water; mix it with 1 teaspoon of salt. Mix them well until salt is totally dissolved and then gargle the solution at least every hour to get rid of mucus clinging in the airway passages. Salt is rich with anti-bacteria properties that stops wheezing.
  • Drink ginger tea lessens coughing, wheezing and asthma. It clears blockage in the breathing tubes and lessen the inflammation in the respiratory tract.
  • Prescribed nasal drops to lessen wheezing at least 2-3 drops for easy breathing.
  • Pursed lip breathing is a slow way of breathing and keeps the airway to open longer and lessen the wheezing. It consists of breathing through tightly pressed or pursed lips and inhaling though closed nose and mouth.
  • Stop smoking to prevent further irritations.

How to treat a wasp sting

June 5th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on How to treat a wasp sting)

Wasp sting causes redness, swelling and pain. The stinger has poisonous venom that can be transferred to humans when they are stung. They have the ability to sting several times and the stingers remain intact.

Symptoms

  • Severe pain or burning sensations at the stinged area
  • Development of hives. A small white mark at the center of the bump which indicates the point where the stinger has punctured the skin.
  • Wheezing
  • Swollen mouth or throat
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea and vomiting

    wasp sting

    Keep the affected area dry as much as possible by covering it using a bandage to prevent the risk of developing an infection and worsen the condition.

  • Fainting
  • Chest pain
  • Redness, swelling and itching

Anaphylactic reaction to a wasp sting

  • Problems with breathing such as wheezing
  • Severe swelling of the face, lips and throat
  • Severe itching or hives in all areas of the body which are not affected by the sting
  • Stomach cramps
  • Diarrhea
  • Dizziness and hypotension which is a sudden drop in the blood pressure
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Weak or fast pulse beat
  • Losing consciousness

Treatment

  • Clean the affected area using soap and water to wash away venom in the area.
  • Remove the stinger using a pair of tweezers or rub it using a card to prevent the fast spread of the venom into the body.
  • Ice the affected area.
  • Keep the affected area dry as much as possible by covering it using a bandage to prevent the risk of developing an infection and worsen the condition.
  • Elevate the area and remove any tight-fitting clothing in the legs, hands, arms or feet. Jewelries should be removed to prevent difficulties in removing them when the area starts to swell. If the legs are affected, lay down immediately to prevent swelling.
  • Prescribed calamine lotion or a topical hydrocortisone cream to lessen the irritation and itching.
  • Prescribed over-the-counter medications to lessen the pain.
  • Make a paste by mixing baking powder with a few drops of water. Mix them well until it becomes the consistency of a paste. Apply the paste on the affected area to lessen the symptoms.
  • Prescribed antihistamines to lessen the swelling and the itching caused by wasp sting.
  • Use the prescribed EpiPen if available.
  • Perform CPR if there is difficulty breathing.

Tips

  • Use a medical alert bracelet when travelling. It is a small tag that is worn on a neck chain; bracelet or clothing with a message that the bearer has an important medical condition that needs medical attention.
  • Wear protective shoes and clothing when going outdoors.
  • Avoid using strong scented perfumes outdoors.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on a wasp sting is for learning purposes only. Learn to properly manage a sting by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Overview on an ACL injury

June 4th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Overview on an ACL injury)

An ACL injury is a condition where there is a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament which is a major ligament in the knee. This kind of injury is common to those who play sports that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or jumping.

People who get an ACL injury often hear or feel a “pop” in their knee accompanied by swelling, a feeling of instability and pain that becomes unbearable when bearing weight on the injured leg.

The treatment for an ACL injury depends on the severity of the injury. The treatment may include a break from the sport and a rehabilitation regimen to help restore strength and stability or even surgical intervention to substitute the torn ligament followed by a rehabilitation regimen.

Signs and symptoms of an ACL injury

ACL Injury

Severe knee pain which prevents you from continuing what you were doing.

  • A loud “pop” sound or “popping” sensation in the injured knee
  • Severe knee pain which prevents you from continuing what you were doing
  • Swelling
  • Loss of range of motion
  • Instability or a sensation of “giving away” when bearing weight on the injured leg

Complications

Anyone who previously sustained an ACL injury in their life has an increased risk of developing a disease known as knee osteoarthritis, this causes the joint cartilage to deteriorate while its smooth surface becomes rough. Arthritis can also occur if surgery was done to restructure the ligament.

The severity of the original injury, the presence of related injuries in the knee joint, and/or the level of activity after the treatment are also factors that can influence the risk of arthritis.

Prevention

With proper training of the sport you’re playing and good exercise, this can lower the risk for the injury.

Wearing the appropriate gear for your sport will also help reduce the risk of an ACL injury.

More Information

The details posted on this page on an ACL injury is for learning purposes only. To learn to recognize the signs and how it is treated, enroll in a first aid course with one of our training providers.

Blisters

June 4th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Blisters)

Blisters are bubble-like formations on the epidermis that contains fluid. Blisters are common symptoms of numerous diseases and conditions. Blisters are commonly caused by burns, infections, freezing, and friction on the skin.

The purpose of blisters is to protect and cushion the skin layers below. Serum, plasma, blood or pus can be found inside but this depends on where the blisters are formed. Blisters also help prevent further damage done to the deeper tissues.

It is best to leave one alone to keep the lower layers of the skin protected from infection.

What are the causes?

Blisters

Friction can cause blisters to form on the skin, they usually appear on the hands or feet as these are the areas where repetitive friction mostly occurs due to walking, running or working.

  • Friction can cause blisters to form on the skin, they usually appear on the hands or feet as these are the areas where repetitive friction mostly occurs due to walking, running or working.
  • Extreme temperatures can also cause blisters to form. Examples are second-degree burns as it can form blisters immediately while first-degree burns will form blisters after a few hours the burn occurs.
  • Exposure to chemicals can also cause blisters to form.
  • A ruptured blood vessel can also cause a blister to form. The blood will leak out into the gap between the layers of the skin and cause a blister filled with blood to form.

Certain medical conditions can also lead to blisters as a symptom such as:

Treatment for blisters

Most blisters will heal and disappear without the need for medical treatment. As the fresh skin underneath the blister grows, the fluid inside the blister will steadily vanish and the skin naturally dries and peels off.

It is not recommended to pop the blister as it is a protective layer that helps fend off any infection. If the blister is popped, the wound is open, and bacteria can enter the body through the wound. If a blister bursts, avoid peeling any dead skin on top but instead allow the fluids to drain out naturally and then carefully wash it with a mild soap then wrap the blister and the surrounding area with a clean and sterile dry bandage or dressing.

You can wrap a blister with gauze to protect it from further trauma as it recuperates.

To avoid blisters from occurring at your feet due to friction, wear footwear that is well-fitted and comfortable with clean socks.

To avoid blisters on your hands, wear protective clothing such as gloves to reduce the friction on the skin when doing manual work or handling tools.

Remedies for blood clot in the eye

June 4th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Remedies for blood clot in the eye)

Blood clot in the eye is bleeding under the conjunctiva or the outer protective coating of the eyeball in the eye. It gradually changes color and disappear but sometimes blood clots in the eye can be caused by injuries and needs to be treated.

The white portion of the eye is layered by the conjunctiva with blood vessels and nerves. The blood vessels behind the eyes are very delicate and can easily rupture and result to blood clots. If not properly treated can cause a blurred vision and eventually reduced eye sight. Blood clots can also form in new born babies caused by changes in the pressure in the body of the infant during childbirth.

Causes

  • Eye injury
  • Constipation
  • Excessive strain on the eye

    blood clot

    Red spot or patch on the white area of the eye.

  • Excessive sneezing or coughing
  • High blood pressure
  • Diabetes
  • Medications such as blood thinners when taken excessively
  • Blood clotting disorders
  • Deficiency in Vitamin K
  • Over stressed
  • Severe infection of the eye

Symptoms

  • Red spot or patch on the white area of the eye
  • Eye pain
  • Itchiness or irritations in the eye
  • Sensation of fullness in the eye or under the eyelid
  • Blurred vision

Treatment

  • Prescribed lubrication for the eyes such as artificial tears to soothe the eyes. Avoid rubbing the eyes to prevent further irritations and worsen the condition.
  • Place a hot compress on the eyelid to lessen the pain and the irritations. Soak a clean facecloth in hot water. Place it in a plastic bag and then place it across the area for at least 5-7 times every day.
  • Soak a clean wash cloth in cold water. Wring out excess water from the cloth and then place it directly on the area for at least 1-2 minutes to lessen blood clots and the pain. Another alternative is wrapping ice cubes in a towel and compress the eye and splashing cold water into the affected eyes is also good for the condition. Repeat this process at least 4-5 times for 8-10 minutes.
  • Heat 2 glasses of water and add 1 tablespoon of salt. Stir well until salt is fully dissolved. Let the solution cool down to room temperature. Wash the affected eye thoroughly using this solution at least 2-3 times every day to flush out foreign particles and for fast healing of the condition.
  • Prescribed antibiotic eye drop if the blood clot in the eye is caused by external infections.
  • Regular exercises by walking briskly for at least 30-45 minutes every day to increase blood circulation and dissolve and prevents formation of blood clots. Low impact aerobic exercises such as dancing, roller skating, swimming and cargo training equipment are also good for the condition.

Remedies for puss caterpillar sting

June 4th, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Remedies for puss caterpillar sting)

The puss caterpillar or woolly slug is the most poisonous caterpillar. The sting causes sudden pain that can be severe and radiating. The affected area develops erythema and swelling and within 2-3 hours becomes a grid-like pattern of hemorrhagic papules. The condition usually last for 1-2 days.

Symptoms of puss caterpillar sting

  • Throbbing pain
  • Burning sensations
  • Development of rashes
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fever
  • Muscle cramps and seizures
  • Erythematous spots

    puss caterpillar sting

    Wash thoroughly the area using soap and hot water to flush out remaining hair and toxins present in the surface of the skin.

  • Swelling
  • Abdominal pain
  • Lymphadenitis
  • Headache
  • Shock
  • Respiratory distress

Treatment

  • Remove the puss caterpillar and avoid touching it. Use pliers or tweezers or wear thick gloves to pick up the caterpillar. Avoid picking them up with bare hand to prevent further irritation and delay the healing.
  • Once there is burning and itching sensation, stay calm and relaxed. Avoid moving around to prevent the fast spreading of the venom to other areas of the body and worsen the condition.
  • Place an adhesive tape or cellophane over the affected area. Strip the tape repeated at least once or twice to remove hair of the caterpillar.
  • Wash thoroughly the area using soap and hot water to flush out remaining hair and toxins present in the surface of the skin.
  • Place ice cubes in a plastic bag. Wrap it in a towel or a cloth before placing over the affected area for at least 5-10 minutes every 2 hours to lessen the swelling, the pain and the burning sensation. Another alternative is using bag of frozen vegetable such as corn or peas is also good for the condition.
  • Prescribed antihistamines medications to lessen the severe itching and other symptoms.
  • Apply isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol to the sting to lessen the pain and the itchiness.
  • Prescribe topical corticosteroids to lessen the severity of the inflammation.
  • Make a paste by mixing baking soda and a few drops of water. Mix them well and apply it directly on the area to lessen severe itchiness and mild skin reactions.
  • Prescribed pain medications to lessen severe pain and headache.
  • Get a tetanus vaccination within 72 hours after stung by a caterpillar to prevent the risk of developing infections.

Disclaimer / More Information

The material posted on this page on a puss caterpillar sting is for learning purposes only. Learn to recognize the signs and how it is treated by taking a first aid and CPR class with one of our training providers.

Cluster headaches

May 23rd, 2018 | Posted by corinne grace in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on Cluster headaches)

Cluster headaches are one of the most painful types of a headache that occur in a cyclical pattern or clusters. This headache typically wakes you up in the night with intense pain focused in or bordering one eye on one side of the head.

These outbursts of frequent sudden attacks, known as cluster periods, can last for weeks up to months, then is usually followed by periods where the headaches stop. The period that the headaches stop is called a remission period. During the remission period, the time that headaches stop and don’t occur lasts about a month or sometimes even years.

Cluster headaches

These outbursts of frequent sudden attacks, known as cluster periods, can last for weeks up to months, then is usually followed by periods where the headaches stop.

Cluster headaches are rare and are not life-threatening. There are various treatments that help ease the pain and make cluster headaches attacks shorter and less severe. There is also medication that can help reduce the number of cluster headaches.

Signs and symptoms of a cluster headache:

  • Excruciating pain that is focused in or around one eye, but may also radiate to other areas of the face, neck, and shoulders
  • Pain on one side of the head
  • Undue tearing
  • Restlessness
  • Eye redness
  • Blocked or a runny nose forehead or facial sweating
  • Pale or flushed skin on the face
  • Swelling around the eye on the affected side
  • Drooped eyelids

Cluster periods can generally last from six to twelve weeks. The starting date and duration of the cluster might be consistent from period to period. An example is: a cluster period can occur on a specific season such as every winter or every spring.

The pain typically arises and suddenly ceases, with rapidly declining intensity. After the episodes, most people are free from pain, but tired.

When to see a doctor?

See your doctor as soon as possible if you’ve started to have cluster headaches so that you can be properly diagnosed to rule out other disorders and to receive the proper treatment.

Headache pain, even when severe, usually isn’t an indication that there is an underlying disease. But headaches also usually indicate a serious underlying medical condition, such as a brain tumor or an aneurysm.

You should seek emergency care when you develop these:

  • A sudden, abrupt, severe headache
  • A headache accompanied by symptoms such as a fever, nausea or vomiting, stiff neck, confusion, seizures, numbness, or speech difficulty
  • A headache after a head injury, even if the cause was a minor fall or bump, and especially if the headache starts to worsen
  • An abrupt, intense headache
  • A headache that becomes worse as days pass and there are alterations in the pattern
  • Causes of cluster headaches

The precise cause of cluster headaches is not known but is believed to be that irregularities in the biological clock of the body plays a role. Unlike migraines or tension headaches, cluster headaches are not associated with triggers like foods, hormonal changes, or stress. Drinking alcohol during a cluster period may quickly trigger a very painful headache, which is a reason why people who have cluster headaches avoid drinking alcohol during a cluster period.

The use of medication such as nitroglycerin, a drug that is used to treat heart disease is also a possible trigger.