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Home care – foreign object in the eye

January 31st, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on Home care – foreign object in the eye)

In case you suspect that you or a family member has a foreign object in the eye, it is important to perform first aid measures at home right away in order to avoid infection and the possibility of damage to the vision.

foreign object in the eye

Foreign object in the eye

A foreign object in the eye can range from eyelashes, dust, sand, sawdust, metal particles, cosmetics and dirt. These objects can enter the eye through daily activities and do not actually cause severe damage as long as they are quickly removed from the eye. In doing so, damage to the eye structures can be prevented.

Precautions if there is a foreign object in the eye

  • Instruct the individual not to rub or apply pressure on the affected eye
  • Avoid using any instruments or utensils such as cotton swabs or tweezers on the surface of the eye
  • If the individual wears contact lenses, do not remove unless there is abrupt swelling or due to chemical injury

Preliminary steps before performing home care

  • Always wash your hands thoroughly
  • Check the affected eye in a location that has bright light
  • When examining the eye, instruct the individual to look up while pulling the lower lid down and then instruct the individual to look down while flipping up the interior of the upper lid

Steps when removing a foreign object in the eye

Always remember that the safest method for removing a foreign object in the eye tends to differ depending on the type of object being removed and its location in the eye.

The most common location for foreign objects is under the upper eyelid. If this is the case, there are steps to follow:

  • Initially immerse the side of the face of the individual in a flat container of water. Once the affected eye is underwater, instruct the individual to open and close the eye several times in order to flush out the foreign object.
  • Similar results can be achieved if an eyecup will be used. An eyecup can be purchased in any drugstore.
  • In case the object is still embedded, simply pull out the upper lid and stretch it over the lower lid in order to loosen the object.

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Foreign object lodged beneath the lower eyelid

  • You have to pull out the lower lid or press down on the skin beneath the eyelid in order to see underneath it.
  • If the foreign object is visible, you can tap it using a damp cotton swab.
  • In case the object is difficult to remove, you can flush it out by using flowing water on the eyelids while holding it open.
  • An eyecup can also be used to flush out the object.

In case there are several miniature fragments from a particular substance such as sand, it is important to flush them out instead of removing them one at a one.

  • With a wet cloth, use it to remove any particles for the surrounding area of the affected eye.
  • Immerse the side of the face of the individual that has the affected eye in a flat container of water. Once the eye is submerged in water, instruct the individual to open and close the eye several times in order to flush out the particles.
  • For young children, simply pour a glass of warm water into the eye while holding the child face up. Keep the eyelid open while pouring water into the eye to flush out the particles.

Chlorine poisoning

January 27th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Poisons - (Comments Off on Chlorine poisoning)

Chlorine is categorized as a substance that is utilized in preventing the growth of bacteria in water and also as sanitation for industrial and sewage waste. It is also used as a component in different home cleaning products. Chlorine poisoning can happen if an individual swallows or inhales the chemical. It basically reacts with water inside and outside of the body to form hydrochloric acid and hydrochlorous acid. Take note that both are very poisonous.

Even though you might be familiar with chlorine that is utilized in swimming pools, majority of incidents of chlorine poisoning is due to ingesting the household cleaners that contain the chemical. The products and substances that contain chlorine include:

chlorine-poisoning

Chlorine is used in swimming pools

  • Bleach products
  • Water in swimming pools
  • Chlorine capsules utilized in swimming pools
  • Mild home cleaning products

Symptoms of chlorine poisoning

Chlorine poisoning can cause a variety of symptoms all over the body. The respiratory symptoms include the accumulation of fluid in the lungs and difficulty breathing. As for the digestive symptoms, it includes swelling of the throat, burning in the mouth, throat pain, vomiting, stomach pain and blood in the stool.

Exposure to chlorine can damage the circulatory system and can result to changes in the acid levels of the blood. Additionally, it can also lower down the blood pressure. If the eyes are exposed to the chemical, it will cause burning and irritation. In worst cases, it can lead to temporary loss of vision. As for the skin, it can cause tissue damage, irritation and burns.

How chlorine poisoning is diagnosed

Since chlorine poisoning is quite common, it can be easily diagnosed. In some cases, children might ingest cleaning products that contain chlorine. This is difficult to diagnose since children could not tell what they actually feel. Children with symbols of chlorine poisoning must be brought to the hospital right away.

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How to treat chlorine poisoning

It is important to seek emergency assistance right away if an individual is subjected to chlorine. Always remember not to induce vomiting unless it is instructed by poison control or a medical professional. In case the chlorine is present on your skin or eyes, simply flush the area with running water for at least 15 minutes.

In case the chlorine was ingested accidentally, the individual should be given water or milk to drink immediately, unless vomiting or convulsions are experienced. For inhaled chlorine, provide the individual with fresh air as soon as possible.

Once the medical professionals have arrived, it is important to provide the following information so that they can treat it effectively:

  • Weight
  • Age
  • Condition
  • Product ingested
  • Amount consumed
  • Length of exposure

Once the individual is admitted, the healthcare provider will monitor the vital signs and blood pressure. Activated charcoal, medications, oxygen and intravenous fluid might be given in order to relieve the symptoms and eliminate the chlorine in the body.

 

Bee poisoning

January 24th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Poisons - (Comments Off on Bee poisoning)

Bee poisoning is basically a serious body reaction to the venom from a bee sting. Yellow jackets and wasps also have the same venom and can lead to the similar body reaction. In most cases, bee stings do not cause any serious reaction. Nevertheless, if an individual is allergic or had previous bee stings, they might experience a severe reaction. Always remember that bee poisoning entails immediate medical attention. Bee poisoning is also called apitoxin poisoning.

Who is at risk for bee poisoning?

Some individuals are at higher risk for bee poisoning than others. The risk factors for bee poisoning include:

  • Individuals living in areas close to beehives
  • Areas where bees are pollinating plants actively
  • Spending a lot of time outdoors
  • Previous allergic reaction to a bee sting
  • Intake of certain medications such as beta blockers

Adults are more likely to suffer from serious reactions to bee stings than children. Individuals who have an allergy to bee, yellow jacket or wasp venom should always bring a bee sting kit every time they go outdoors. A standard kit usually contains epinephrine that treats anaphylaxis which is a severe reaction that can make breathing difficult.

Symptoms of bee poisoning

The mild symptoms of bee sting include:

  • White spot where the stinger punctured the skin
  • Pain or itching at the sting site
  • Redness and minimal swelling on the skin surrounding the sting site

The symptoms of bee poisoning include:

  • Hives
  • Swelling of face, throat and lips
  • Pale or flushed skin
  • Headache
  • Fainting or dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • Abdominal cramping and diarrhea
  • Weak and rapid heart rate
  • Low blood pressure
  • Loss of consciousness
bee sting-first aid

The bee stinger should be removed carefully

When to seek medical attention

Majority of individuals who have been stung by a bee do not need medical attention. Simply monitor any minor symptoms such as itching and mild swelling. In case they do not go away or the individual experiences severe symptoms, it is best to call a doctor.

Individuals who experience symptoms of anaphylaxis such as difficulty breathing or swallowing, individuals who experienced multiple bee stings or those who have a known allergy should seek emergency assistance right away.

Treating bee stings at home

The treatment for a bee sting involves the removal of the stinger and caring for the symptoms.

  • Remove the stinger using tweezers or credit card just be cautious not to crush the enclosed venom pouch
  • Clean the sting site with water and soap
  • Apply ice in order to ease the swelling and pain
  • Apply hydrocortisone to reduce the itching and redness
  • Provide an antihistamine such as Benadryl for swelling and itching

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In case the individual is experiencing an allergic reaction, call for emergency assistance right away. While waiting for the professionals to arrive, you can do the following:

  • Check the airway and breathing
  • Start CPR if needed
  • Remove constricting clothing and jewelry in case of swelling
  • Administer epinephrine if a bee sting kit is available
  • Position the individual in shock position if symptoms of shock are present
  • Keep the individual comfortable and warm

Individuals who love to spend time outdoors yet allergic to bee or wasp venom should always have a bee sting kit ready.

The Requirements for a Standard First Aid Box

January 23rd, 2014 | Posted by finzy in Being Prepared - (Comments Off on The Requirements for a Standard First Aid Box)

Having a standard first aid box is a requirement for many offices and workplace environment especially for those that belong in more hazardous industries such as mills and machine shops. Homeowners are also advised to have one in their residence in order to serve as a safety net in case of domestic emergencies such as house fires. However, the efficiency of a first aid box does not lie on its presence alone. To ensure that it saves the lives of people, these boxes should possess several characteristics which shoppers should look for before buying one. Here are some of these characteristics.

It should contain all the necessary materials

Aside from bandages and scissors, it should also contain other first aid materials such as rolls of plaster, cotton and string; antiseptics such as Povidone; over-the-counter pain medications; splints; a hand towel and soap. To lessen the expenses, buyers are better off purchasing boxes that are already pre-packed with most, if not all, of these items. A first-aid booklet can also be added to ensure that the items that are inside the kit or box are properly utilized during emergencies.

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It should be compliant with government standards

The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have a specified set of requirements that all employers should comply with when it comes to first aid kits. For starters, OSHA highly advises a company or an employer to delegate the task of choosing first aid kit supplies to a specific person who is knowledgeable in the area. For small business, OSHA advises business owners to buy a kit that has the items that are prescribed by the American National Standards Institute in their Minimum Requirements for Workplace First Aid Kits manual. Included in the manual are the list of items that homeowners are advised to own.

The items should not be expired

Gauze Package for First Aid

Gauze Package for First Aid

Aside from antiseptics and medications, items that are wrapped in sterile packages such as bandages and plasters also have expiration dates that should be checked regularly. Expired medical items such s antiseptics lose their efficiency after the expiration date. Sterile packages lose their 100% bacteria-free state once it reaches the expiration date.

The easiest way to learn about these requirements and items is to sign up for a first aid course. In this course, employers, employees and homeowners are given lectures regarding the items that can be found inside standard first aid kits. They are taught how to use these items and how to store them properly.

First Aid for Fever – Simple Steps

January 13th, 2014 | Posted by corinne grace in Basic First Aid Skills - (Comments Off on First Aid for Fever – Simple Steps)

When one has a fever, it can indicate a variety of conditions, including infection. The normal temperature slightly differs from the average body temperature of 37 C or 98.6 F. For infants and young children, especially

Temperature monitoring is vital for fever

Temperature monitoring is vital when a person has fever.

the newborns, a slight elevated temperature can indicate a serious condition. As for the adults, a fever is not considered dangerous until it goes up to 39.4 C or 103 F or even higher. Adults who are suffering from fever below 38.9 C or 102 F should not be treated using any medications unless it is instructed by your doctor. For fever of 38.9 C or 102 F or higher, your doctor usually recommends over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen.

Aspirin can be used by adults but it is not recommended for adolescents and children below 19 years old. Take note that it might trigger Reye’s syndrome, which is a rare but fatal disorder. Additionally, do not give ibuprofen to infants below 6 months old.

Taking the temperature

If you are using the latest thermometers, most of them provide a digital reading. Some take the temperature in the ear canal quickly, making them useful for older adults and young children. Other thermometers are used orally, under the arm or rectally. If you are going to use a digital thermometer, make sure that you have carefully read the instructions so that you can take the temperature accurately. On normal circumstances, the temperature is usually elevated at 4-6PM and at its lowest around 6AM.

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Oral route

Taking the temperature orally is simple. All you have to do is to position the bulb of the thermometer under the tongue. Instruct the individual to close the mouth for the required length of time or once you hear a beep, usually in a minute.

Axillary route

Even though this method could not provide accurate results, an oral thermometer can be used. Simply position the thermometer on the axilla with the arm down. The arm should be held across the chest. Wait for the results for one minute or when there is a beep.

Rectal route for infants

For young children, the rectal route of taking the temperature is usually used. Initially, apply a lubricant on the bulb of the thermometer and position the child on his/her stomach.  Insert the bulb carefully ½ – 1inch into the rectum and hold in place for a minute or until the beep sounds.

When to seek medical attention

It is important to seek medical help for fever if a child younger than 2 years old has fever for more than a day or more than 3 days as well as babies older than 3 months with a temperature of 38.9 C or 102 F or higher. As for adults, temperature higher than 39.4 C or 103 F or fever for more than 3 days should seek medical attention. It is important that you learn all about fever and the causes. Taking the temperature is an important part of  advanced first aid training that you have to be familiar with.

PANCREATIC CYSTS

January 8th, 2014 | Posted by Ibrar in Muscle Injuries - (Comments Off on PANCREATIC CYSTS)
Pancreatic cysts

Pancreatic cysts

Pancreatic cysts are pockets of fluid resembling sacs that usually occur on or within the pancreas.

The pancreas is large organ located at the back of the stomach that produces hormones and enzymes that assist in digesting food.

Pancreatic cysts Signs and Symptoms

One may not necessarily experience any symptoms from pancreatic cysts including pseudocysts. Pancreatic cysts are usually found when imaging tests of the stomach are done for another reason. Signs and symptoms of this disease commonly entail unrelenting abdominal ache that may be sent out to one’s back, nausea and vomiting, and a mass that can be felt in the upper abdomen.

Several cases of pancreatic cysts are not cancerous and do not cause visible symptoms. For sure, most of these cases are not cysts at all. These pockets of fluids are lined with scratch or inflammatory tissues which are not the type of the cells found in real cysts. However, some pancreatic cysts tend to be cancerous. In such a case, a doctor may take a sample of the pancreatic cysts fluid and determine the presence of cancer cells. However, in some cases, cysts slowly become cancerous thus the doctor may be unable to tell whether a cyst becomes cancerous. He might recommend monitoring of the cyst over a period of time for changes in shape or size.

Notably, if one notices persistent abdominal pain and fever it might mean that cysts have been infected, and the patient should see a doctor immediately. This can be a medical emergency since the fluid released by the pseudocyst can damage nearby blood vessels causing massive bleeding. This can lead to infection of the abdominal cavity. Should you notice severe abdominal pain, fainting, vomiting of blood, reduced consciousness and weak and rapid heartbeat, emergency medical treatment ought to be sought.

Pancreatic cysts Causes

What causes pancreatic cysts still remains unknown though cancerous cysts may be caused by mutation of the genes; it is also worth noting that some cysts are a result of rare illnesses in the body.

Pancreatic cysts Risk factors

Heavy alcohol intake and gallstones are some risk factors for pancreatic cysts whereas the major risk factors for pancreatitis are psseudocysts and abdominal injury.

Pancreatic cysts Treatment

Treatment though, depends on the type of cyst that one has and whether it is causing symptoms and pancreatic cysts should be monitored to determine whether to seek medical attention or not. Basically, stay safe from factors that might trigger pancreatic cysts in the body. If the symptoms persist, one should immediately seek the medical expertise from a general practitioner.

Pancreatic cysts Home remedies

The best way to avoid pseudocysts is to shun pancreatitis which is caused by heavy alcohol intake or gallstones which trigger pancreatitis. If the pancreatitis is as a result of alcohol use, abstain from it to reduce the risk of pancreatic cysts.